Mammoth Proportions

Mammoth Proportions

Grant Keddie
Grant Keddie

Grant KeddieCurator of Archaeology

Why did you want to be an archaeologist?
I have always had a curiosity about many things and have a special passion to learn about human beings and other species of animals and our history on this planet.

 

How did you become an archaeologist?
I studied hard in school and eventually went to university to get a degree in archaeology. I taught myself how to make and use bone and stone tools and did experiments in using them, such as cutting up dead animals with stone knives.

 

What do you do as curator of archaeology?
I have been curator of archaeology here for more than 40 years. My job includes learning new knowledge about archaeology and discovering new knowledge myself by doing research on our collections. I go out of the museum to discover new things. I help people identify artifacts. I answer questions from members of the public of all ages who teach or work in government departments. I work with educators and exhibit designers to make school programs and exhibits. I write books and articles about our collections and talk on radio and TV programs. 

Stories by or about this person

Curator of Archaeology, Grant Keddie, writes about a First Nations ceremony that took place in 1927 and included then Lieutenant-Governor Robert Bruce.

Curator of Archaeology, Grant Keddie, writes about a common type of archaeology site on BC’s coast.

Curator of Archaeology, Grant Keddie, describes this rare artifact from the Royal BC Museum collection.

Curator of Archaeology, Grant Keddie, explains microblade technology.

Article by Robert Moyes about Curator of Archaeology Grant Keddie’s childhood and how his experiences influenced his career.

Curator, Grant Keddie, writes about childhood experiences that sparked his curiosity and fueled his lifelong interest in ancient human history.

Liz Crocker

Stories by or about this person

Marji Johns, Paleontology Collections Manager (Retired), explains the importance of collecting and donating fossils.

Marji Johns, Paleontology Collections Manager (Retired), explains the importance of fossils

Marji Johns, Paleontology Collections Manager (Retired), explains how some of our beaches contain fossils and other treasures that are millions of years old.

Curator of Vertebrate Zoology Dr. Gavin Hanke writes about this European lizard that is now at home in BC. It was released to southern Vancouver Island around 1970 and has since expanded its range, with potential impacts on native species.

Sometimes, species are identified only years and years after they have been found. In 1995, an unidentified shrimp species was found at Fisherman’s Wharf in Victoria. Twenty years later, it has been identified as the Japanese Skeleton Shrimp (Caprella mutica).

Educator Hannah Morales created this lesson which connects Learning Portal digital media related to residential schools, to the Social Studies curriculum.

Botany Collections Manager, Dr Erica Wheeler talks about what inspired her love of plants and what a botanist does.

What stories of the Cariboo Gold Rush do photos help to tell? Watch this short tutorial on how to take a photograph from simple face value to deeper inferences about the past.

Many animals, including people, can choose their mates—but can plants? Well, yes, actually—many of them can. Even though a plant can’t physically move, the flowers of some species are still able to choose their mates.
This Week in History, season 5, episode 2. Published on Sep 14, 2016.

Plants produce many chemicals that aid in their defence against plant-eating animals (herbivores). Humans use some of these same chemicals as medicine. The Royal BC Museum native plant garden has several interesting examples of the use of plants for human medicine.
This Week in History, season 4, episode 10. Published on Nov 19, 2015.

Learning Program Developer Kim Gough describes a hands-on, inquiry-based activity with objects that can be adapted for any classroom.

Watch seniors engage with mystery objects from a Royal BC Museum outreach kit. Object-based learning stimulates thinking and the opportunity to spend time sociably with others.

Dr Kathryn Bridge discusses Emily Carr’s steamer trunk, her own connection to Carr and the museum’s large collection of Carr’s sketchbooks and personal items.

This 19th-century wreath is made of woven strands of hair from many members of the Charter family. It is decorated with faux pearls and metal beads.

Warbrick Deans describes a windy seaside walk in Victoria in this letter to his ‘Great Granny’. If you have trouble reading his handwriting, click on the link below to read a typed version of the letter here. Visit listen to hear someone read the letter.

Arthur Crease like to write letters! Read the letter Arthur wrote to his brother Lindley. If you have trouble reading his handwriting, read a typed version of the letter here. Visit listen to hear the letter read aloud.

Read the letter eight year old Arthur Crease wrote to his ‘mama’ when she was away on a trip. Read a typed version of the letter here. Visit listen to hear someone read the letter aloud.

This excerpt is of a film taken by Nurse Harriet Gerry, who worked for the federal Department of Indian and Northern Affairs. The amateur footage of First Nations communities includes scenes of children at play and a family arriving home with a new baby in around 1941.

This film has excerpts of scenes from around 1936-1940 at Fairbridge Farm School at Cowichan Station on Vancouver Island, BC. Many of the students were brought from England as orphans; others were voluntarily sent by their parents who believed they were sending them to a better life.

This documentary film was created by the BC Forest Service to showcase Vancouver Island home industries. The film illustrates how the famous Cowichan sweaters are made by women on the Koksilah Reserve in Duncan, BC. Knitter Mary Ann Modeste is featured.

This film from 1945 was created by the BC Government Travel Bureau Photographic Branch and was used to attract employees and their families to the mining industry. The film emphasizes the comfort of miners and their families at mining camps.

Curator of Human History Dr. Tzu-I Chung writes about the Guichon family ranchers who arrived in the Nicola Valley during the Cariboo Gold Rush. Five generations later the Guichon family has one of the largest working cattle ranches in BC.

In the 1940s, the town of Ymir, BC hosted large family festivals. Watch some May Day celebrations, a May Queen pageant and crowning, children dancing around a maypole and a baseball game. These colourful May Day celebrations were filmed by Lester G. Morrell in 1940.

On holiday at Premier Lake in about 1926, the DeWolf family swims, dances and barbecues. What does your family like to do on holiday?

Two boys from the DeWolf family enjoy playing in boats—both real and pretend. What pretending games do you like to play?

Young Gladys DeWolf and her friends give a dance recital in the back yard, filmed by her dad Allan in Cranbrook, BC, in about 1926.

Follow a family’s BC camping trip in 1957 and 1958. First visit Miracle Beach on Vancouver Island and then travel to a provincial campsite at Okanagan Lake.

The Browning children enjoy a snowy day at Britannia Beach in about 1930. Has playing in the snow changed since this film was made?

Invertebrates Collection Manager Heidi Gartner talks about Northern Abalone (Haliotis kamtschatkana) an at risk species in British Columbia. Learn what to do if you find a rare Northern Abalone shell on the beach.

Marji Johns, Paleontology Collections Manager (Retired), talks about the fossil collection at the Royal BC Museum in multiple videos. This Week in History, Season 6, Episode 23. This Week in History, Season 4, Episode 17. This Week in History, Season 4, Episode 11. This Week in History, Season 3, Episode 6.

In 2004, a collection of almost 200 miscellaneous items was donated to the Royal BC Museum by David Walker. He had worked as a cleaner in downtown Victoria, including Chinatown, from the 1950s to the 1990s.

Photographer Fredrick Dally’s story is highlighted to give you more insight into his images of BC’s Gold Rush.

This article by Dennis Duffy and David Mitchell appeared in Bright Sunshine and a Brand New Country, a 1979 publication in the BC Archives’ Sound Heritage series. It examines the British Columbia oral history work of CBC radio producer Imbert Orchard, drawing on a 1978 interview with Orchard.

E-Fauna BC’s Spiders of British Columbia is authored by Royal BC Museum research associate Dr Robb Bennett. This Electronic Atlas of the Wildlife of British Columbia is an excellent resource to find out more about spider life in this province.

Royal BC Museum Curator, Dr Gavin Hanke writes about removing and preserving baleen from a Grey Whale that washed up on Long Beach, Vancouver Island on April 20th, 2015.

Dr. Tzu-I Chung explores how gold seekers from many parts of Europe, the Americas and Asia followed the gold trail around the world. The gold rush brought the first major settlement of Chinese people to Canada, and what would later become known as British Columbia.

Invertebrates Collection Manager Heidi Gartner and former Curator of Invertebrates Dr Melissa Frey write about hearing and sound in marine invertebrates.

See the Fall 2014 edition of What’s inSight for Invertebrates Collection Manager Heidi Gartner’s article about tunicates, small invertebrates also known as sea squirts.

Read Entomology Collection Manager and Researcher Claudia Copley’s and Conservation Manager Kasey Lee’s article about Dermestid Beetles in the Winter 2014 edition of What’s Insight. Find out how these insects threaten collections throughout the museum.

Read Entomology Collection Manager and Researcher Claudia Copley’s article about the bees of British Columbia in the Fall 2014 edition of What’s Insight.

In this video Curator Emeritus of Entomology Dr Rob Cannings talks about the features and adaptations of dragonflies and damselflies.
Credit: RBCM

Royal BC Museum Entomology Collection Manager Claudia Copley, joins Sophie and Steve at Global News to talk about fall spider season. Credit: Courtesy Global News

A short article about the art of illustrating fish for scientific work.

Curator of Vertebrate Zoology Dr Gavin Hanke writes about fishy research trips and discovering fish species new to British Columbia on page 16 of this electronic copy of What’s inSight.

Curator of Vertebrate Zoology Dr Gavin Hanke writes about Assfish, Brotulas and Cusk-eels in The ABCs of the Royal BC Museum on page 24 of this electronic copy of What’s inSight.

Curator Emeritus of Entomology Dr Rob Cannings spent his childhood exploring ponds in the Okanagan Valley. Here he writes about a special moment when a dragonfly captured his attention and what one needs to become an observer of these insects.

How can you tell if it is a dragonfly or a damselfly? Do they sting? Learn the basics about these ancient insects from Dr Rob Cannings.

What happens after a dragonfly larva leaves its watery world? And why are dragonflies sometimes seen joined together while flying? Read about the life of the adult dragonfly here.

BC’s diverse habitats support more than half of all the species of robber flies in Canada. Although harmless to humans, these “assassins in the grass” are skilled hunters of other insects. Learn more in this article by Curator Emeritus of Entomology Dr Rob Cannings.

Preservation Manager Ember Lundgren talks about the significance of the Jack Webster collection and the challenges of its preservation. From This Week in History.

Preservation Manager Ember Lundgren writes about the Webster collection on pages 18 to 19 of the Winter 2014 edition of What’s Insight.

As part of his research for the Gold Rush! El Dorado in BC exhibition, Curator of History Dr. Lorne Hammond researched archival diaries for comments on music being played in saloons during the gold rush. To bring the music to life, Dr. Hammond and Archivist Ann ten Cate recruited modern day BC musicians to play a selection of popular songs from the period.

Textile Conservator Colleen Wilson talks about the time-intensive conservation of a stunning gold rush-era dress. Parts of this video were shot during the preparations for the Royal BC Museum’s 2015 feature exhibition Gold Rush! El Dorado in BC.

Archivist Raymond Frogner writes from a personal and professional perspective about his uncles’ involvement in the First World War.

Curator of Botany Dr Ken Marr and Botany Collections Manager Dr Erica Wheeler describe the process of collecting, preserving and storing specimens for the Botany collection at the Royal BC Museum.

Botany Collections Manager, Dr Erica Wheeler talks about what inspired her love of plants and what a botanist does.

Botany Collections Manager, Dr Erica Wheeler, talks about Mary Gibson Henry and her contributions to BC botany. Part of this video was shot during a 2014 field research trip in northeastern BC.

Royal BC Museum Curator of History, Dr Lorne Hammond, reveals the back story on Sir Francis Stillman Barnard, the 10th Lieutenant-Governor of British Columbia and his influential family.

Dr Lorne Hammond and Colleen Wilson write about the mystery of Lieutenant-Governor McInnes’s uniform.

Archivist, Ann ten Cate, leads viewers through the basic steps of family history research (genealogy) at the BC Archives.

Dr Melissa Frey talks about her background and role as curator of invertebrates (animals without backbones) at the Royal BC Museum.

Curator of Invertebrates (animals without backbones), Dr Melissa Frey, talks about the work and legacy of Dr Josephine F.L. Hart in a video for This Week in History.

Royal BC Museum Curator, Dr Gavin Hanke, describes the sometimes smelly, but always interesting, work of preparing the museum’s first humpback whale skeleton.

Royal BC Museum’s Curator of Vertebrates, Dr Gavin Hanke, writes about the work of museum illustrator, Frank Beebe.

Curator of History, Dr Lorne Hammond and Textile Conservator, Colleen Wilson, write about the mystery of Lieutenant-Governor Robert McInnes’s uniform.

Curator of Archaeology, Grant Keddie, writes about a First Nations ceremony that took place in 1927 and included then Lieutenant-Governor Robert Bruce.

Royal BC Museum Conservator, Colleen Wilson, tells the story of the conservation of Lieutenant-Governor McInnes’ uniform with these photographs. (Scroll to the bottom for this photo gallery).

Curator of Archaeology, Grant Keddie, writes about a common type of archaeology site on BC’s coast.

Curator of Archaeology, Grant Keddie, describes this rare artifact from the Royal BC Museum collection.

Curator of Archaeology, Grant Keddie, explains microblade technology.

Archivist, Frederike Verspoor, writes about the bride and groom behind British Columbia’s first marriage license.

Article by Robert Moyes about Curator of Archaeology Grant Keddie’s childhood and how his experiences influenced his career.

Curator, Grant Keddie, writes about childhood experiences that sparked his curiosity and fueled his lifelong interest in ancient human history.

CBC radio visits BC Archives for Archives Bootcamp. This audio recording presents Archivist, Ann ten Cate facilitating a public event designed to introduce and demystify archives research.

Playlists


Historical Thinking Winter Institute 2019Staff Playlist

Historical Thinking Winter Institute 2019

This playlist collects Learning Portal resources to support sessions at the Historical Thinking Winter Institute at Royal BC Museum February 15 & 16, 2019. It also supports activities or lessons you can do back in the classroom or wherever you work, including primary sources from BC Archives and suggestions on how to investigate these sources…

Learning Portal on Chek TV!Staff Playlist

Learning Portal on Chek TV!

This short video is part of the Royal BC Museum This Week in History series on Chek TV. It was recorded in fall of 2018. It gives a brief overview of what the Learning Portal is about and some of the technologies we are using to improve your experience here on the Portal.

Bowker Creek Restoration

Bowker Creek Restoration

By OB16
OB16's informative view on the significance of the Bowker Creek watershed restoration! Starting this project we asked: What is the importance of restoring Bowker Creek?. Hope you enjoy!

Heritage Inquiry Toolkit

Heritage Inquiry Toolkit

Heritage Inquiry Blueprint, timeline and useful resources compiled by Sarah McLeod and Sarah Isbister. We have put this resource together to support our colleagues embarking on Heritage Inquiry and Heritage Fair projects with their students. Access the document here  

How do Riparian Zones benefits streams and Wildlife

How do Riparian Zones benefits streams and Wildlife

By OB3
In this playlist ,we will be writing about Riparian Ecosystems affect a streams water quality, health, and the biodiversity. A Riparian ecosystem is interesting because it has both land and Aquatic organisms. This biodiversity creates alot of benefits for the ecosystem, and the organisms in the Riparian zone. We hope you enjoy.  

Species of Victoria’s Beaches

Species of Victoria’s Beaches

By OB9
  This playlist highlights a few of the different species of wildlife that can be found on the beaches and in the tide pools of Victoria. You will see many videos and pictures of the unique and fascinating creatures . You will learn about these creatures, their diet, appearance, certain beaches you can find them at, and a…

How Do Riparian Ecosystems Affect Streams

How Do Riparian Ecosystems Affect Streams

By OB15
In this playlist, I will be writing about how Riparian ecosystems affect a streams water quality, health and biodiversity. A Riparian ecosystem is interesting because it has both land and aquatic organisms. This biodiversity, creates lots of benefits for the ecosystem, and the organisms in the Riparian ecosystem. I hope you enjoy this as much…

Bowker Creek; Water Quality and Effects

Bowker Creek; Water Quality and Effects

By OB4
Every is ecosystem different, but all require a source of water for the food web to function properly. Water is the lifeblood of existence, and Bowker Creek\'s diverse and interesting riparian ecosystem is fed by it. What is the water quality of Bowker Creek like, and how do the characteristics of Bowker\'s water affect the…

Mushrooms of Bowker Creek

Mushrooms of Bowker Creek

By OB5
  There are over ten thousand species of fungi in North America alone, most of which are decomposers. The fungi category (or kingdom) includes yeast and mold, but in this playlist we will be looking at mushrooms- what they are, the types that grow around Bowker Creek, and how to identify certain species.

Creekside Eats!

Creekside Eats!

By OB6
Bowker Creek has a variety of different berries, some of which are edible. As well as being tasty, they can provide a plethora of medicinal benefits. This playlist will highlight the edible berries at Bowker Creek, and provide some recipes with these stellar berries.

Animals of Bowker Creek

Animals of Bowker Creek

By OB11
In this playlist I will be exploring possible ways to clean up Bowker Creek, and ways to bring native animals back to Bowker Creek.

What are the native medicinal plants of Bowker Creek?

What are the native medicinal plants of Bowker Creek?

By OB1
In the unique riparian ecosystem of Bowker Creek (located in Victoria, British Columbia), many native medicinal plants are found. We will be exploring the cultural medicinal benefits of Bowker Creek with a focus on: How the Coast Salish Peoples use the medicinal properties of the native plants.

Exploring Controversial and Divisive Environmental Questions

Exploring Controversial and Divisive Environmental Questions

By OB2
Academia has become more and more politicized in recent years, and with politics infiltrating nearly every facet of our modern society the truth becomes increasingly censored by the people themselves. This slideshow here aims to tackle some of the most controversial questions of a controversial topic: the environment. Beware, this thing is Text-Heavy

Crossing Cultures and Healing: A Totem Pole ProjectStaff Playlist

Crossing Cultures and Healing: A Totem Pole Project

The Royal BC Museum, along with The BC Ministry of Health and Timberwest, have collaborated to create the Crossing Cultures and Healing Totem Pole Project. Tsawout Carvers, and brothers, Tom and Perry LaFortune have designed and are carving a pole on site at the Royal BC Museum.

Species Journals

Species Journals

We've been spending lots of tine outside hiking around saturna... this week our class started species journals: doing field sketches and then using field guides to identify the plants. check out a link to the learning portal:   https://learning.royalbcmuseum.bc.ca/pathways/native-plants-south-coast/

Adaptations of Bowker Creek’s Organisms

Adaptations of Bowker Creek’s Organisms

By OB21
What adaptations allow the organisms living in and around Bowker Creek to flourish? What traits make these species successful? Specialized plants and animals live all throughout the Bowker Creek water shed, ranging from tiny plants to birds of prey. All of these organisms have adaptations that allow them to survive and foster the next generation.

Bridging Victoria:  Experiencing the Exhibit

Bridging Victoria: Experiencing the Exhibit

This playlist documents the making of the exhibit Bridging Victoria: Stories from the Archaeological Past, and how the event unfolded on the day (Nov 25, 2017). These projects were carefully crafted by University of Victoria anthropology students to share three local archaeological sites through one-of-a-kind, hands-on and immersive experiences.

Salmon at Bowker Creek

Salmon at Bowker Creek

By OB24
What would it take for salmon to return to Bowker Creek? Take a look at what is preventing salmon from living in Oak Bay, where they once flourished.

Pollution in Bowker Creek and how it affects Animal Life

Pollution in Bowker Creek and how it affects Animal Life

By OB26
The restoration of Bowker creek has been an on-going process for many years. it's currently near completion of its restoration. Unfortunately, human caused pollution is limiting the capabilities of the creek so it can no longer support much of the wildlife it used to house. This playlist will be covering some key points about Bowker…

Bowker Creek Restoration

Bowker Creek Restoration

By OB23
This is a playlist encompassing the restoration of the Oak Bay High School section of Bowker creek. It was created for the purposes of research, but mostly so I can do well on my science project.

The Bowker Creek (hypothetical) Salmon Run Initiative

The Bowker Creek (hypothetical) Salmon Run Initiative

By OB25
With Bowker Creek's restoration underway, is it possible to bring back the salmon population that was historically abundant in the creek? The Bowker Creek Salmon Run Initiative is a hypothetical blueprint of the specific changes that would need to take place in order for Bowker Creek to regain its salmon-bearing status.

Where Did the Salmon in Bowker Creek Go?

Where Did the Salmon in Bowker Creek Go?

By OB27
Bowker Creek used to be home to lots of Salmon! Salmon used to swim throughout every twist and turn of the creek. Questions such as: Where did they go? Why did they leave? and What Needs to Change? will be answered in this playlist!

Indigenous Simple MachinesStaff Playlist

Indigenous Simple Machines

This playlist goes with the Simple Machines lesson plan by Hannah Morales. Find the lesson plan in the teach section of the Can You Dig it? pathway on the Learning Portal here.

Soy Sauce and Spirits: Life in Victoria’s China Town

Soy Sauce and Spirits: Life in Victoria’s China Town

Although unimposing in appearance this Brown Glazed Stoneware has an interesting story. Born in the kilns of Guangdong Provence, China, it journeyed 10,289 km to Victoria. Its contents were consumed by the Chinese workers and reused for storing homemade Chinese liquor. These jars reflect both the daily life of China Town and its seedier underbelly.

Anthropology of Sound 2017 Class

Anthropology of Sound 2017 Class

Welcome to the playlist for the Anthropology of Sound, class of 2017. Students from the University of Victoria have been inspired by various artifacts, dioramas, and exhibits and created original soundscapes to accompany them. You can also listen to these soundscapes, and many more from previous classes, on Soundcloud (click here to check it out!)

Bridging Victoria: Stories from the Archaeological Past

Bridging Victoria: Stories from the Archaeological Past

Created in conjunction with the pop-up exhibit Bridging Victoria: Stories from the Archaeological Past this playlist showcases three never-before-exhibited local archaeology collections. Learn about bottles and ceramics from Chinatown, woodworking from the old Songhees Village (Esquimalt), and military objects from the depths of Esquimalt harbour.

Royal BC Museum Interventions for Change WorkshopStaff Playlist

Royal BC Museum Interventions for Change Workshop

This playlist was created to support workshop participants at the BC Museums Association Conference 2017. The session Interventions for Change explored intervention strategies scalable for museums of any size to be used in school programs or special events. Learn about an intervention with the Punjabi community at the Royal BC Museum here.       

From Insects to AbstractionStaff Playlist

From Insects to Abstraction

Looking closely at insects from the Royal BC Museum entomology collection, teacher Andrew Gibbs led his students in an art activity inspired by Georgia O'Keeffe. Dive into this playlist for activity details and samples of student work. Andrew Gibbs father, Richard Gibbs worked at the museum as a taxidermist. Richard Gibbs with Woolly mammoth below.

Bowker Creek at Oak Bay High School

Bowker Creek at Oak Bay High School

The restoration of Bowker Creek in 2015 produced an ecosystem with a winding creek water path, native plant species, and an outdoor classroom, providing educational and natural history opportunities for Oak Bay High school students as well as for members of the community.  

Something Fishy: Elementary LessonStaff Playlist

Something Fishy: Elementary Lesson

This playlist helps give insight to the anatomy of fish and First Peoples' knowledge and relationship with fish. Examine scientific drawings and First Nations artwork of fish and explore how they reflect different interpretations and perspectives of nature.

Residential School Resource

Residential School Resource

It would be a great to learn about First Nation people by connecting to the land.  Shi-Shi-etko by Nicola Campbell. First Peoples Principles of Learning, "Learning ultimately supports the well-being of the self, the family, the community, the land, the spirits, and the ancestors."    

Family Diversity

Family Diversity

This playlist explores family diversity that exists within our society. In the last two decades, family structures have seen rapid change, moving away from the "traditional" household consisting of a mom and dad. It is important to recognize other family structures, such as single parent families, same-sex parent families, or extended families.

Excavating Royal Jubilee

Excavating Royal Jubilee

The Royal Jubilee Hospital collection housed at the Royal BC Museum captures a rare glimpse into the dynamic world of 1890s Victoria, from 'modern' medical treatments to children's toys, these are the stories the students from the Department of Anthropology (University of Victoria) researched to showcase the value of historical archaeology in B.C.

Residential Schools, Colonization & Reconciliation

Residential Schools, Colonization & Reconciliation

During my practicum at Gordon Head Middle School, Grade 7 students revisited the topic of residential schools and were introduced to the term 'colonization.' Students applied their existing and new knowledge about residential schools to better grasp the concept of colonization and reconciliation.

Soundscape Composition Anthropology of Sound 2016

Soundscape Composition Anthropology of Sound 2016

Original soundscape compositions created by the Anthropology of Sound students of the Department of Anthropology at the University of Victoria to accompany objects, displays and dioramas of the museum's 2nd floor. Their sound compositions were presented during the Happy Hour Press Play event organized by the RBCM on November 24, 2016.

The Significance of StorytellingStaff Playlist

The Significance of Storytelling

Storytelling is how histories are shared. Whether it is through song or spoken word, storytelling shapes people and cultures. Explore this playlist to see how people from different cultures have used oral histories to share their experiences.

Abbotsford School District Writers

Abbotsford School District Writers

Communities come in many forms. This one includes students who share I Am From poems, capturing a slice of their lives at this moment in time. This playlist is still in progress as we add the final poems and share more of the process as well. We invited students from a class in Denmark to…

Sustainable Agriculture

Sustainable Agriculture

By R8
The exhibit we have created in the Royal BC Museum, and this playlist is about the importance of sustainable agriculture, not just for today, but for the future as well. Educating people about what they are putting in their bodies, and the impact of mass food production has on our planet is something our group…

The Uncanny Association and the Mysterious Door

The Uncanny Association and the Mysterious Door

By R3
A group of friends are on a field trip to the Royal BC Museum when they find a mysterious door in Old Town. They open the door and when they walked through they entered a timewarp and are transported to real life Old Town. From there they have a series of adventures throughout time using…

Voting Timeline

Voting Timeline

By R2
A timeline made to show how the voting system changed throughout the years.  You are able to comment or add to the timeline with your own stories or experiences that can help add personality and diversity to the timeline.

The Struggle for Suffrage in BC

The Struggle for Suffrage in BC

By R9
For our project, we chose to research women's suffrage in BC. We decided to display this information in the form of a radio play featuring fictional characters living in Victoria in 1916. Our goal is that someone listening to our audio files will learn something about suffrage in BC, and that their curiosity to learn…

Victoria’s Chinatown

Victoria’s Chinatown

By R1
“Understanding is the first step to acceptance, and only with acceptance can there be recovery.” ― J.K. Rowling. This playlist explores the journey of acceptance and recognition of Chinese-Canadians in British Columbia and the celebration of Canada's Oldest Chinatown.

Gambling During the Gold Rush Project

Gambling During the Gold Rush Project

By R4
This playlist explores the personalities that would be present in a saloon during the gold rush era. We created a radio play based on the painting entitled "Slim Jim," found in the BC Archives.

Things on the Shoreline

Things on the Shoreline

Things on the Shoreline is a collaborative and ongoing project by Cindy Mochizuki. Working from her core practice of art-making, performance and slow storytelling, Mochizuki - along with Vancouver school children - work from an empty shoreline to conjure inky creatures and perform creaturely tales. Watch, learn and conjure for yourself.

New Grade 10 Social Studies Curriculum Big Ideas

New Grade 10 Social Studies Curriculum Big Ideas

The new Grade 10 Social Studies Curriculum stresses four "Big Ideas." This playlist will explore the first Big Idea, that "Local, national, and global conflict can have lasting effects on the contemporary world." Explore some of the stories, articles, and images in this playlist and reflect on how conflict has (and continues to) shaped BC's…

Material Evidence (Archaeology)

Material Evidence (Archaeology)

Archaeologists study people in the past through material culture - the things that people left behind. One approach is to use a technological perspective. Why would someone make that? How would someone make that? By asking "What would YOU do in this situation?" we use the present as a portal into the past, connecting to the…

Species at Risk

Species at Risk

In British Columbia, 36% of distinct animal species are labelled "at risk". The first step to conserving our native species and ecosystems is to educate ourselves on these species and the reasons behind their endangerment. Once we know why a species has become endangered, we can begin to take the steps necessary to protect threatened…

Home Learners Creative Writing Program

Home Learners Creative Writing Program

These are the stories and pictures of the kids working on their stories for the creative writing class with Paisley and Korina from Story Studio. This four week course encouraged kids to be inspired by the museum objects and displays, while also working alongside the Royal BC Museum's Learning staff.

Ancient BC

Ancient BC

This playlist explores the ancient landscape of BC. Visit the primordial past--a strange world where alien creatures and exotic vistas shock the senses.

Oral Histories with Seycove Students

Oral Histories with Seycove Students

Highschool students from Seycove Secondary began an educational journey at the RBCM. Together we looked at the use of different documentation styles, explored the use of tangible and intangible information in the "Our Living Languages: First Peoples' Voices in BC" exhibit and finally, conducted an interview with local archivist Dennis J. Duffy.

Turning Primary Sources into PlaysStaff Playlist

Turning Primary Sources into Plays

It is over 100 years since the outbreak of the Great War. How do we now construct an understanding of what occurred and how do can we know the issues British Colombians faced both at home and on the Front? The Call Went Out is a theatrical piece based on letters from BC soldiers about their experiences and this…

Nature through the LensStaff Playlist

Nature through the Lens

Photography is a multifaceted form of expression. It is not only an illustration of the artistic self, photography is important in many segments of science. Photos can document an astronaut's visit to the moon, unique weather patterns, a colourful fish, or your family vacation. How can you use photography to learn more about the world around you?

Predator and Prey

Predator and Prey

Ecosystems have a natural food chain that maintains balance in nature. Within each food chain there are predators and there are prey. What factors decide who will be the hunter and who will be hunted?

Wearable ArtifactsStaff Playlist

Wearable Artifacts

Artifacts are objects that have been created, modified, used or moved by people. Clothing is an excellent artifact to analyze, compare and contrast. Regardless of time or place, clothing has been made and worn based on many factors: environment, religion, cultural identity, personal style...whatever the reason, our clothing says a lot about us!

BC and War

BC and War

This playlist will explore BC connections to the First and Second World Wars and their impact on home soil using segments from the "This Week in History" TV program and an existing pathway dedicated to World War I. Learn about regimental history, war time postal service, and see archival images related to the Great War!

Collections in Context and Caring for Collections

Collections in Context and Caring for Collections

What does the museum have? Why do collections matter? How are they cared for and stored? This playlist will use "This Week in History" TV segments and videos produced by the museum to highlight specific collections held by the Royal BC Museum, provide context for particular items, and show the work involved in caring for…

Disaster Strikes

Disaster Strikes

BC's diverse terrain and variable weather can be dangerous and cause significant disasters. BC also has a long history of human movement and immigration, which can expose populations to new and serious diseases. This playlist will highlight significant natural, health, and transportation disasters in BC history.

Inspirational Women of BC

Inspirational Women of BC

Many women have left their mark in BC's history for their achievements in science and the arts, their love of the outdoors, or their refusal to conform to society's expectations of women. This list aims to bring attention to women featured in "This Week in History" TV segments and their contributions to our province. What inspires you?

Young Eyes and Hopeful Hearts

Young Eyes and Hopeful Hearts

This playlist highlights projects of the campers of the Royal BC Museums traveling exhibit - Spices At Risk as they explore this topic and discover ways they can help these species and raise awareness.

What You Can Do & Where You Can Do It

What You Can Do & Where You Can Do It

Too often I've met people who say they feel that they can't make a difference for local species because they don't have the time, resources, or ability to do so. In response to that, I've chosen to create a playlist of British Columbian organizations of all sorts that are willing and ready to help you…

How do science and policy influence one another?

How do science and policy influence one another?

This playlist is part of an inquiry project for a course at the University of Victoria in Curriculum and Instruction in Elementary and Middle School Social Studies. My initial question is "How can the Learning Portal be used to support Social Studies learning?" To model inquiry, my second question is "How do science and policy…

Museum After-HoursStaff Playlist

Museum After-Hours

As a museum educator, I get most excited by the potential of the galleries after-hours. There is something about this time frame that makes anything seem possible. And the real magic begins.

Indigenous Principles and the Classroom

Indigenous Principles and the Classroom

This playlist is meant to help highlight the journey I am taking as a non-indigenous person incorporating indigenous principles of learning and ways of knowing and being into my high school English and Humanities classroom. I hope that this playlist can help other educators feel comfortable joining me on this journey to honour how all humans learn.

What is ‘Art’?

What is ‘Art’?

It's a tricky question, and doesn't have just one answer. To some, art is something that expresses an idea or emotion, and offers a new way to engage with the world around them. But what does art mean to you, and how do you define what is (or isn't) art? This playlist looks at objects created in, and/or inspired…

Facilitating creative production in museum spacesStaff Playlist

Facilitating creative production in museum spaces

Museums have persistent, complicated identities as collecting institutions, places for the display of others' creations. But in our galleries lies inspiration for creativity itself. This playlist will showcase the masterpieces produced within the museum's walls by our summer camp participants, in tandem with the Gold Rush! El Dorado in BC exhibit.

Art in Nature

Art in Nature

In my work as an educator, I seek activities that connect students to nature by engaging in art. This playlist pulls nature inspired art from the learning portal, and also includes my own similar projects.

Women of ScienceStaff Playlist

Women of Science

Recent issues in the news have brought to light some negative attitudes towards women in science. I have assembled this playlist to encourage and support women and girls to pursue their interest in science. As you can see in these examples, women have a lot to offer the world of science - and have been doing so…

Yellow-Orange

Yellow-Orange

We all classify, categorize and order the world in different ways. We often organize objects by name, material, use, age and location. How do you organize various things in your life? This is a grouping of learning portal images that are yellow-orange. Does seeing these objects side by side make you ask any new questions?

Chinese Canadians in pre and interwar British Columbia

Chinese Canadians in pre and interwar British Columbia

Images and text shed light on Chinese narratives of the late 19th century in British Columbia up till the Chinese Immigration Act of 1923.  Through analyzing these sources we aim to recognize the historical context in which these events and prejudices took place, and begin an informed conversation on how they affect the present.

Continuity and Change in B.C.’s Natural History

Continuity and Change in B.C.’s Natural History

In the process of studying events in history, it is tempting to view them as disconnected or isolated. In reality continuity and patterns of change flow through all of history - the natural history of this province is no exception. It is important to think critically about B.C.'s past and present, so that we can create…

Complicating The Home Front

Complicating The Home Front

Visual and textual resources help bring to light the experiences of German Canadians in British Columbia during the Great War.  Violence and Discrimination played off of major world events and propaganda, as people of German ancestry within British Columbia faced prejudice for events that took place a world away.

Bats of British ColumbiaStaff Playlist

Bats of British Columbia

Studying bats is a great way to learn about mammals, adaptations and habitats. And you don't have to wait until night time. Check out E-Fauna BC for information about your local bats. Learn how to make a bat box for your house. Watch for bats on summer evenings, at dusk, near lakes and streams.

Entries


The Benefits!
1In 1 playlists
By OB20
Here I will provide a document that characterizes some of the benefits that riparian zones provide to the environment.

An Unhealthy Riparian Zone
By OB20
Contrarily, coarse and exposed soil means that plants are having and will have a difficult time establishing themselves. This soil may also end up in the water as it is torn away, polluting the stream. Without plants, this will be left unchecked.

A Healthy Riparian Zone
By OB20
Here are some ways to identify a healthy riparian zone, like the one pictured: When there aren't patches of open soil, it indicates the riparian zone's plant life is well-established and healthy. If uncovered, then the soil shouldn't be sandy. The banks of the zone's stream should also avoid erosion, while trees should vary in size and in age.    

What does riparian mean?
By OB20
Riparian means that something is related to wetland. This can apply to being on or near riverbanks or other freshwater sources. Because of this, the specific sort of plants found on or adjacent to streams or creeks could be described as "riparian".

Learn more:
1In 1 playlists
By OB16
For more information on OB16’s playlist, view our google document.      

Learn more:
1In 1 playlists
By OB16
Here you can view a time lapse of the Bowker Creek reconstruction at Oak Bay High School.

Our goals and what we will gain from the restoration
By OB16

There are a number of positive things we will gain from restoring Bowker Creek, such as the purification of air and water, controlled decomposition of wastes, improved quality of soil and vegetation, nutrient cycles, oxygen production, cultural and spiritual benefits, pollination of crops and vegetation, and reduced greenhouse gases.


How was Bowker Creek different now from what it used to be?
By OB16
Before: -natural water channel/flow -surrounded by wetland -many fish/ wildlife -First Nations derived food and fresh water from the stream -nutrients transported from the creek, supported Oak Bay's rich ecosystem Currently: -urban development and agriculture expanded -stream channel was straightened, excavated, and enclosed in pipes -lowered water levels

How will we maintain it once it’s restored?
By OB16
It's very important to maintain a natural Bowker Creek. There are many easy ways to do our part, for starters, we would have to carefully watch the growth of invasive plants. We should also watch the pH levels of the water, and not use fertilizers in our gardens, to prevent toxic runoff. Also, spreading awareness can go a long way for the creek.

How long will the restoration take?
By OB16
Many watersheds have a base document Integrated Storm Water Management Plan (ISMP). The Bowker Creek Blueprint: The Hundred Year Action Plan to Restore Bowker Creek Watershed,; is the intiative's unique verion of an ISMP. The restoration will significantly increase overall creek health by improving water quality, habitat, and flow conveyance.

Invasive Species
1In 1 playlists
By OB16

Bowker Creek's native vegetation has become strangled by the many invasive plants that grow. Willows (one of the invasive plant species in Bowker Creek)not only suppress native plants but, also clog the stream channels because of their aggressive root systems. Invasive plants outcompete native plants, hence reducing biodiversity in the ecosystems.

 

Flooding and Safety
1In 1 playlists
By OB16
Due to industrialization, a lot of Bowker Creek floods during heavy rainfall, such as Trent street near St Patrick's School. To stop this issue, environmentalists are trying to increase the amount of natural habitat around the watershed, and create more storage areas for water and preventing downhill flooding by creating small ponds and wetlands.

Water Quality
1In 1 playlists
By OB16
Runoff causes water pollution because it sometimes includes debris, chemicals, and other pollutants picked up by the rain. Fluids from the roads around Bowker creek go through storm drains, and the toxins are bad for the water. We need to make sure our watershed produces unpolluted runoff to increase the creeks water quality.

Habitat Loss and Degradation
By OB16
Many years ago, the Bowker Creek watershed was cleared for agricultural purposes, but now urban development has led to species of wildlife leaving the area. Riparian areas are most affected because they are exposed to high flows, filter contaminants and flooding. Urban development prevents growth of tissues, and decreases vegetation and habitat.

Traditional First Nations Wood uses
By OB10
Wooden canoes were very traditional for the First Nations communities and an important part of their lifestyles. It was so important because it made traveling over water faster and easier. The canoes were usually made out of White Pine tree, Birchbark, Spruce or White Cedar. Another use for wood was for large bonfires where traditional gatherings would take place.

Edible Plants
1In 1 playlists
By OB10
There is an estimated 400,000 plants on planet Earth, and out of those more than 80,000  are edible. There are plants ready to eat all around us in nature, although many people don't know about them. They may include the berries, leaves, stems, seeds, or even the roots of certain plants.

Abortion!
1In 1 playlists
By OB2
Just kidding. this IS a playlist talking about divisive questions, but only divisive environmental ones. Feel free to continue. this was a prank. Ha?

A Random Picture of a Duck
By OB2
I felt this playlist was becoming quite serious and possibly a bit too text-heavy and stale, so here's a picture of a glorious duck to lighten the mood.

There is Nothing as Polarizing as Environmentalism
By OB2
From those who see our planet as doomed to become unlivable to those who view climate change as a myth, people globally are polarized in both extremes, and in others too. While there is proof that the world won't become unlivable, and that climate change is indeed a thing, many choose simply to ignore facts in favor of ideology. The path towards saving the environment and our society lies not in siding with one of these extremes, but by listening to science and molding our opinions around it, as it is one of the only objective forces in this divided world. Moderation is more powerful than extremism. Have a balanced approach to things, and never disregard an argument because it is different than what you think - if you do, then you're part of the problem.

Fecal Coliform Counts from 2000
By OB4
A study from 2000 tested the levels of fecal coliform (such as E. Coli) in the creek and found them to be decreasing; this change was attributed to improvements made to the local sewer system.

Black Elderberry
2In 2 playlists
By OB6
These stellar berries can be found at the Monteith St gardens. Black elderberries contain Vitamin C, dietary fiber, flavonols, phelonic acids, anthocyanins, and antioxidants. They also can help prevent colds and flu, and have some heart benefits. Even though you can't eat them raw, elderberry syrup allows you to take advantage of all these nutrients. (recipe next entry)

Elderberry Syrup
2In 2 playlists
By OB6
Elderberry syrup provides lots of nutritional value, including Vitamin C, Vitamin A, Vitamin B, and antioxidants. As well as this, elderberry syrup is great for fighting colds and flu. Instead of buying the syrup at grocery store, you can make it yourself with the elderberries at Bowker Creek.

Question Seven: Native Plants VS “Invasive” Plants
By OB2
Most assume that we must preserve native species from their invasive counterparts, I ask, why? Is it because not doing so would endanger biodiversity? Because we brought these species here, is it somehow our moral duty to protect these creatures that cannot help themselves? We shall find out.

The Importance of Fungi
By OB5
A small paper I wrote about the importance of fungi and how they contribute to keeping our environment and our bodies healthy and happy.

What are Fungi?
1In 1 playlists
By OB5

A small paper I wrote about what fungi are, and different types of fungus.


Impervious Surfaces
1In 1 playlists
By OB16
Most of Bowker Creek's watershed is composed of impervious surfaces, which causes water to travel straight into storm drains, instead of being soaked up by vegetated areas. Storm drains are connected to bodies of water, becoming contaminated by surrounding surfaces such as automotive oil runoff that find their way to the watershed, polluting water.

Research Summary
1In 1 playlists
By OB4
This summary outlines our findings from research and testing of the Bowker Creek water quality.

Wildlife Benefits if the Riparian Zone is Healthy
By OB3
A healthy habitat can benefit wildlife by there being no pollutants that could potentially be fatal. Even if it is very healthy it can have a negative impact. If there is a build up of nitrogen or phosphorus there can be a algae bloom which block natural light from getting in.

Stream Channel Degradation
By OB16
Bowker Creek has been artificially deepend/ straightened with cement and rock. Due to this, Bowker Creek has been separated from its floodplain and destroyed. Leading to, the floodplain has been converted to urban land and the creek has increased flow speed, resulting in erosion. No riparian zones are left and excess water isn't soaked up.

What are the Environmental Issues of Bowker Creek?
By OB16

Unfortunately, Bowker Creek suffers from many environmental concerns, here are some of the main ones, which will been gone into further detail in the next entries:

 
  • Stream channel degradation

  • Impervious surfaces

  • Habitat loss and degradation

  • Water quality

  • Flooding and safety

  • Invasive species


The Trouble with Blackberries
By OB6
If you have ever walked along Bowker Creek, or even just around Oak Bay, you will notice many blackberries. There are so many in fact that they are smothering the native plants. These invasive plants block out the light for native plants, causing many of them to die. Although these berries are delectable, and are very nutritional, they are interfering with biodiversity at the creek.

Native Plant Medicines
1In 1 playlists
By OB10
Many native plant medicines have been found that can treat some common colds, viruses, fevers, and even diabetes. One study counted almost 550 plants that could be used medically that some Canadian First Nations used - The plants cured close to 30 different sicknesses. Sadly the passed down knowledge of these plants is disappearing because less people are relying on the teachings to survive.

Native Plant Dyes
1In 1 playlists
By OB10

Natural plant dyes have been around for hundreds of years, and have been very helpful to many First Nations communities in Canada with dyeing clothing. There are dyes for each different colour made from a variety of trees, flowers, barks, leaves, and berries.           

 

Deathcaps
1In 1 playlists
By OB5

Deathcaps are one of the deadliest mushrooms in the world, and you can find them in Victoria. I have yet to see one at Bowker Creek but trust me, they are around. So if you do decide to go foraging, make sure you can identify mushrooms properly and always double check your finds. Linked here is a short video about deathcaps and a brief explanation on how to identify them.

 

Coprinoid Mushrooms (Inkcaps)
By OB5

Here is a small paper I wrote about coprinoid mushrooms, and how to identify different species you find around Victoria.


How Can We Help?
2In 2 playlists
By OB7
We have the power to slow down global warming, by making small changes in our everyday life. However, if we do not make these changes soon, it will be too late. Humans have to start making smarter choices around energy consumption and environmental awareness. The Earth needs our help, and we have the power to save it.

Ochre Sea Star
1In 1 playlists
By OB9
The Ochre Sea Star is a large creature that can grow to 30 centimetres. It can be identified by its rigid white spines, and they are usually brown, orange or purple. These huge sea stars have very few enemies and predators, but they are sometimes eating by sea birds or otters. They usually live up to 20 years.

An Introduction to Bowker Creek
By OB7
Bowker Creek is a watershed located in Oak Bay. Our class and the Oak Bay community is working to restore the creek back to its original state. We are working on testing the creek to measure its health, and will be removing invasive plant species. The creek is a crucial ecosystem, and it is home to many important organisms.

Giant Green Anemone
1In 1 playlists
By OB9
Giant Green Sea Anemones are marine invertebrates that can grow to about 18 centimetres. They are carnivores that mostly eat small fish and crabs. These anemones have algae living inside them, but these algae do not contribute to their vibrant green color. There can be up to 14 green anemones within 3 square feet.

The Global Effect of Rising Water Levels
By OB7
Sea levels are rising due to climate change, as the oceans absorb 80% of the heat. Rising sea levels are also caused by the melting of glaciers, which is changing the runoff to evaporation ratio. This has a tragic effect on coastal habitats as it will cause destructive erosion, wetland flooding, pollution in the rocks and soil, and habitat loss.

Flooding in Bowker Creek
By OB7
Rising sea levels and flooding will soon become an issue for Bowker Creek. With glacier loss at 20-25%, less cold water enters the creek which is harmful for fish who are sensitive to temperature changes. There is also the threat of erosion as the water comes further inland, ruining habitats along the shore of the creek.

What is Bowker Creek?
1In 1 playlists
By OB16
Bowker Creek is around 14-1,1500 years of age. Bowker Creek is named after John Sylvester Bowker, an American settler who came to Oak Bay in the 1860s. Bowker Creek runs from the wetland on the University of Victoria campus through the District of Saanich and the City of Victoria, and discharged to the sea through the District of Oak Bay.

Stellar Jay
1In 1 playlists
By OB3
Stellar Jays are one of most beautiful birds you may see. They are dark blue with a black head and shoulders. They are seen all through the North West in Evergreen Forests . Stellar Jays eat berries, seeds, nuts, and insects. Even though its winter the Stellar Jays are still out. These birds are incredibly smart and inquisitive.

The Future of Bowker Creek
By OB7
If our conservation efforts work as we hope, the future creek will be a flourishing ecosystem full of biodiversity. However,if climate changes affects the creek we will have to take a different approach in order to sustain the ecosystem. Small things have a large impact in the future, regarding the native plant species surrounding the creek.

The Past of Bowker Creek
By OB7
Bowker creek was vital for First Nations communities providing them with food, water, and transportation. It housed a marine ecosystem supported by the watershed. However, Oak Bays development in the 1900’s re-purposed the creek as a landfill. Since then, over 50% of it has been hidden by cement tunnels and affected by pollution and climate change.

The Importance of Bowker Creek
By OB7

Bowker Creek is a very important ecosystem to Oak Bay as it is one of the only riparian ecosystems in the community. The creek is home to many animals, such as ducks and a variety of different insects. There are many native plant species around the Bowker Creek area, and therefore it is an essential ecosystem to keep our community thriving.


Red Tailed Hawk
1In 1 playlists
By OB3
The Red Tailed Hawk are high on the food chain. They eat small mammals such as rabbits, mice, and other rodents. They also are able to eat some reptiles such as snakes. Their feathers are light brown, but on the bottom they are white. The easiest identifying feature is the orange-red tail feathers. Their habitats are open country place like grass fields.

Red Sea Urchin
1In 1 playlists
By OB9

    The Red Sea Urchin is a creature that resembles a ball of spines. They grow to a length of about 15 centimetres, and their spikes can grow to 8 centimetres. They are identifiable by their red color, however they are very similar to purple urchins. Most Red Sea Urchins live to about 30 years, but some live up to 200 years. They often eat kelp, and are commonly eaten by Sea Otters.

   

Bloodstar
1In 1 playlists
By OB9
The Bloodstar is a sea star that is orange in color and is part of the Echinasteridae Family. It is quite common at Clover Point. They are carnivores, and they mostly eat by trapping and eating small particle sized creatures. Blood stars usually reach 10 to 12 centimeters. They usually live up to 35 years.

How Riparian Zones Reduce the Risk of Erosion and Bank Failure
By OB3
There are many different ways a Riparian Zone affects streams. Along with them, Riparian Zone can reduce the risk of erosion. The roots systems of trees and shrubs reinforces cohesion into the soil and by providing a surface matting. Trees however, use the water from a stream to increase the drainage in the soil. That reduces the risk of bank failure, due to the heavy saturated soil.     

Riparian Debris
1In 1 playlists
By OB3
Other than reducing the risk of erosion and bank failure, a Riparian zone also creates a lot of habitats and help with light getting to the zone. The debris from fallen trees creates a small ecosystem for small creatures and slows down the flow of the water. When vegetation decays into the river, it creates Tannin. Tannin, helps with getting light to the habitat. Also, the shaded created by a Riparian Zone, cools down the temperature, making it  easier for cold blooded creatures to live in.  

Plant Adaptations
2In 2 playlists
By OB7
Climate Change is affecting the plants in Bowker Creek because the increased carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is resulting in overgrowth of plants. This is because the carbon dioxide is an essential ingredient for photosynthesis. However, it can reduce the nutrition in foliage. Heat tolerant and resilient plants will thrive from climate change.

Black Cotton Wood
1In 1 playlists
By OB8
Canoes can be made from dug out Black Cotton Wood. It burns well and was used as friction to set fire. The ashes can then be used as a cleanser for buckskin clothing and hair.  The resin from the buds were used for sore throats, coughs, lung pains, and rheumatism.

Saskatoon Berries
1In 1 playlists
By OB8
These berries are extremely nutritious and is very well enjoyed by the native population. They were the most important plant food to the prairie Blackfoot tribe, using both the wood supply an the fruit it self. The wood is made into arrow shafts while the fruits are used in a big variety of medicines.

Rose Hips
1In 1 playlists
By OB8
Rose hips are very nutritious. the vitamin C content in them are much higher than citrus fruits. They were important in the diet of First Nations. They can be made into tea or delicious tarts.

Blue Elder
1In 1 playlists
By OB8
The berries of the elder had been used as a blue dye. The leaves and the bark has been used topically for wounds, bruises, and skin problems. The berries can NOT be eaten raw but can be made in different food. The straight stems has been used as a wind instrument wherever it grew. the stem is full of poisonous pit that can be pushed out. it results in a hollow stem that is easy to work with. It can be made into blow sticks and pipes.

Insect Adaptations
2In 2 playlists
By OB7
Bees, one of the most important insects on our Earth, are rapidly decreasing in numbers due to temperature increase. The bees are being affected because they need to travel to disappearing cooler areas to create new hives, the seasonal timing is changing due to the earlier flower blooming in Spring, and the bees are more susceptible to diseases.

Mock Orange
1In 1 playlists
By OB8
The dried powdered leaves or wood has been mixed with oil used as a rub for sores and swollen joints. When crushed with water it can be used as a soap that is both effective for skin and clothes. The stem can be used in making fine coiled baskets. Wood is very strong so when it is straight it can be used to make bow and arrows.

Black Hawthorn
2In 2 playlists
By OB6
 

Black Hawthorn grows at the Monteith Street Gardens. The berries contain antioxidants and some people use them to treat heart problems. They contain lots of flavonoids, which allows them to be useful in treating cardiovascular issues. Black Hawthorn is also known to reduce high cholesterol. Black Hawthorn is a small, oval shaped berry, and they have a sweet and sour taste.  


Red Cedar
1In 1 playlists
By OB8
Red Cedar had many many uses. It was used for a wide variety of treatments medicinally. The bark can be used to make deep rich red, brown paper, or made clothes and baskets. It was also used for roofing. A green dye can be obtained from the leaves and twigs. The wood was very widely utilized by the First Nations. They were used for houses, totem poles, canoes, to ordinary household items such as spoons and ladles.

Saskatoon Berries
2In 2 playlists
By OB6
Saskatoon berries grow along the banks of the Monteith Street Gardens. They contain antioxidants, protein, and fiber in high quantities. Also, they are considered a better source of calcium than red meats and vegetables. Saskatoon berries look very similar to blueberries, but are actually closely related to apples. They can be consumed fresh, but are also delicious in pies, tarts, and jams.

Red Alder
1In 1 playlists
By OB8
The bark of the red alder was also turned into dye. It was used for baskets, wood, wool, hair, and also skin. depended on how it's done, the colour can ranged from black to brown to orangey-red. it can also be carved into bowls and utensils.

Thorns from the Black Hawthorn
By OB8
Medicinally, Black Hawthorn is said to be used to strengthen the heart and thin the blood. the sharp thorns were used as needles and pins, or even turned in to a rack or fish hooks. the bark when burned and mix with ash and grease is turned into a concoct of black face paint for ritual purposes.

Conservation Efforts vs. Global Warming
By OB7
The 100 year conservation plan for Bowker Creek may be affected by climate change. As the climate warms, the summer precipitation rapidly decreases, leaving the creek at a very low water level. As a result of the water level being low, it becomes much easier for the water to heat up (and vice versa for the winter) making it harder for marine animals to live in its waters.

Riparian Debris
1In 1 playlists
By OB15
Other then reducing the risk of erosion and bank failure, a Riparian Zones also creates lot of habitats and helps with light penetration. The debris from fallen trees creates a small ecosystem for small creatures and slows down the speed of the river. Also, when vegetation decays into the river, it creates Tannin, which helps with light penetration.

Conclusion
1In 1 playlists
By OB11
From Flatworms to Mallard ducks to three-spined sticklebacks, Bowker Creek houses many species! But Bowker creek is still under pollution from road run-off, illegal dumping and more. This stops more sensitive-to-pollution species from living in Bowker creeks ecosystem.

Introduction
1In 1 playlists
By OB11
How can  we help Bowker Creek? Well, a start for  this would be to  educate yourself and learn more about th creek's ecosystem and what we can do to help. Bowker Creek is a possible home for amazing animals, these animals (such as the Coho salmon) used to live here. And they can live here again if we just clean up the creek and create a safe environment for new species.

Great Horned Owls, Bubo virginianus
By OB11
 

Great horned owls are native to bowker’s creeks area. Although seeing more of them in the area would be ideal. These owls are fierce predators that can take large prey, including raptors such as Ospreys.


Racoons, Procyon lotor, common
By OB11
 

Racoons are becoming more common in Bowker Creek than ever before because of their high tolerance to pollution which is killing off the racoons predators allowing them to become more common in the Bowker creeks watershed.


Flatworms, Platyhelminthes
By OB11
Flatworms are small aquatic worms that inhabit Bowker creek. They usually feed on small bacteria, and are generally eaten by small aquatic species

Mallard Ducks, Anas platyrhynchos (common)
By OB11
Mallard Ducks are plentiful in Bowker creek, perhaps this is because Mallard ducks can live anywhere between 5-10 years. Mallard Ducks usually feed on insects, worms, small aquatic beings, and water plants.

Where to Go
2In 2 playlists
By OB6
This document will highlight the main locations along the creek for berry picking.

Salal
2In 2 playlists
By OB6
 

Salal is found in most areas around the creek. It is one the most healthy berries you can eat, even healthier than blueberries, strawberries, and cranberries. Salal contains much more antioxidants than blueberries. The flavor of these healthful berries has been described as an earthy cross between a blueberry and a blackcurrant.


Pacific Crab Apple
2In 2 playlists
By OB6
 

Pacific Crab Apple is primarily found at the Monteith Street Gardens. It looks like a smaller version of an apple, and is also much more tart than a regular apple. First Nations were able to store these apples and make them sweeter. As well as this, they contain a lot of pectin, which allows them to easily be made into jams and jellies.


Rosehips
2In 2 playlists
By OB6
 

Rose hips are found at most places around the creek, and are native to BC. They contain plenty of Vitamin C, and can be used to prevent colds and flus. It is the round part of the rose plant that grows near the petals. It can be dried to make tea, and although you can eat it raw, it is not very tasty.


Thimbleberry
2In 2 playlists
By OB6
 

Thimbleberries are also natives, and they can be found at the Oak Bay section of Bowker Creek. It is very similar to a raspberry in appearance, but it is smaller and flatter. As well as this, it contains vitamin C, vitamin A, calcium, potassium, and iron. It can also boost your immune system.


Three Spined Stickleback
By OB3
The Three Spined Stickleback is one of the many freshwater fish. It has three spines down its back which are for defence from predators. Males have a red chest and throat while females have a silver body with brown stripes. They live in the calmer parts of rivers or streams. They eat insect larvae and fish eggs of their own species.


First and Foremost
1In 1 playlists
By OB2
An introduction to what we (I) will be talking (writing) about today (whenever you read this).  

How can Governments be Persuaded to Act on Climate Change?
By OB2
As the world around us changes for either better or worse, activist groups and scientists alike compete for the attention of world governments. But what is the best way to grab the attention of these entities? This page seeks to answer this question.

Question Five: Wind, Solar, or FUSION: Which is better?
By OB2
Two of these currently exist, and one of these is poised to dominate the energy of tomorrow. The real question is whether or not it will come in time to save our environment. This page of text goes into a moderately deep explanation of some of the pros and cons of each power generation system and explains what our best course of action might be for future power generation.

Question 3: Should we Destroy some Ecosystems to Buy Time?
By OB2
This is a truly, criminally under-discussed idea. The idea of destroying a number of animals to reduce emissions in the short term and provide us with time to switch to green energy is an interesting one, and it is one that I will discuss in depth here. Be advised that I do not condone rampant animal murder as of now - it isn't' necessary. Verdict: It could work, and the unforeseen consequences may not be as bad as some say, but it simply isn't necessary now - the environment, while damaged,  isn't yet at the stage where we need to reduce emissions so sharply that we'd be able to consider destroying animal populations, be they domesticated or otherwise.

In Conclusion
1In 1 playlists
By OB2

Well, that’s it. You’ve sat down and read all of my work, or maybe you just skimmed through the entire thing to get an idea of what I wrote. Either way, thank you for your attention. I hope these entries have provided some much-needed information on some controversial, often misunderstood environmental topics, as well as asking a few downright insane (and yet, still plausible) questions. 

In short, to sum up, our current environmental situation, I would put it like this:

Better than people say it is, but still bad.

The plastic problem, I fear, gets far too much attention and diverts efforts away from climate change into saving animals, which matters little in teh short term or even long term. Either way, this playlist does not exist to share my opinions, only to debate questions. I hope it has served it’s purpose, and I hope it has inspired you to question everything that you’re told - opinions are present in everything. Even a logical, rational person such as myself cannot help but fall to the vice of conviction occasionally.

Anyway,  

Have a pleasant day, and rest easy - the world won’t end tomorrow.


The Geno-Suicide Question:Should we end humanity for nature?
By OB2
I don't even need to go into a full debate to explain that "No, no we should not". While this is an intriguing question, it is easily answered: The implementation would be endlessly difficult without nuclear weapons, and if we use those we destroy nature in the process. Not only that, but it would also result in the deaths of billions of people, and we tend to avoid doing things that result in that for good reason.

Who Used Native Plants for Medicinal Purposes?
By OB1
It is known that many groups of Aboriginal Peoples as well as European Settlers used native plants for medicinal purposes. In this Playlist all the plant entries are on how the Coast Salish Peoples specifically used the native plants, not how other Aboriginal groups did.

About Native Plants
2In 2 playlists
By OB1
What are native plants and why are they so important? It is key to have knowledge about native plants before fully understanding their connection to the Coast Salish Peoples and Bowker Creek.

About Bowker Creek
2In 2 playlists
By OB1
Many years ago, Bowker Creek was channeled into pipes to reduce the risk of flooding the surrounding areas. Although no more flooding took place after the creek was in pipes, the creek was no longer functioning like a healthy creek. Recently the CRD (Capital Regional District) day-lighted a section of the creek near Oak Bay High School.

Salal
2In 2 playlists
By OB1
Salal (Gaultheria shallon) has a astringent effect and can be used as an anti-inflammatory and anti-cramping medicine. Chewed salal leaver can be spat on cuts, burns and sores to heal them. A tea made from salal can cure a variety of internal problems including bladder inflammation, heartburn and indigestion.  

Garry Oak
2In 2 playlists
By OB1
Garry Oak (Quercus garryana) can be made into a tea to heal numerous problems including inflamed gums, sore throats, burns, cuts, scrapes and insect bites. Galls, growths that appear on certain trees are astringent, which can be used in the treatment of hemorrhages.  

Question Two:  Why Protect Endangered Species?
By OB2
This opens up a whole new can of aquatic worms. Prepare thyself. End verdict: After much simulated debate the affirmative side is argued into a corner. The negative side wins a hard-fought victory, though if some other points are suggested this could change.  

Bigleaf Maple
2In 2 playlists
By OB1
The Bigleaf Maple (Acer macrophyllum) has leaves which can be boiled and turned into a tea to cure persistent sore throats. The leaves can be rubbed on the faces of young men to prevent them from getting thick whiskers.

Red-Osier Dogwood
2In 2 playlists
By OB1
Red-Osier Dogwood (Cornus sericea) is used as an external and internal remedy. A decoction can cure colds, fevers and headaches. Externally, bark shavings have been pressed to open wounds to stop the bleeding. It can also treat poison ivy rashes.

Willow
2In 2 playlists
By OB1
Willow (Salix) bark is used to relieve fevers and the flu as well as to reduce inflammation. It can also be used to cure headaches and backaches.

Oregon Grape
2In 2 playlists
By OB1
Oregon Grape (Mahonia aquifloium) is an antidote for shellfish and other kinds of poisoning if you eat it is large quantities. If you boil the stems and the roots the extract acts as a remedy for skin diseases, acts as a general tonic with a reviving feeling and can be made into detergent lotion.

Common Snowberry
2In 2 playlists
By OB1
The Common Snowberry (Symphoricarpos albus) can heal swimmer's itch in the summer by boiling it to bath in. If you bath surrounded by the plant it is believed to have the power to make young children's legs stronger and possible even heal the paralyzed, so they can walk again. It can also be rubbed on sores, rashes and burns to heal them faster.

Nootka Rose
2In 2 playlists
By OB1
The Nootka Rose (Rose nutkana) has branches that are broken off and boiled to turn into eye medicine to help flush someones eye out if they could not see very well, such as if they had cataracts. It is also known to bring strength if eaten  by young people during a hard time in their lives.

Arbutus
2In 2 playlists
By OB1
The Arbutus (Arbutus menziesii)  had leaves that could be chewed raw to ease symptoms of a bad cold and could also be made into a tea that could be drunk to help ones stomach feel better. The leaves could be rubbed on skin that was affected by rheumatism or burns to heal them.

Western Red Cedar
2In 2 playlists
By OB1
Western Red Cedar (Thuja plicata) can be drank as an infusion for a remedy for coughs, sore throats, and fevers. It is said to cure heart and kidney problems, arthritis, pneumonia and even tuberculous. Red cedar extract has been confirmed by modern science to have immune-stimulating effects.

Western Flowering Dogwood
By OB1
Western Flowering Dogwood (Cornus nuttallii) has a long history of medicine. In the past it was used to treat malaria. It can also be applied directly to the skin to cure boils and other wounds. It is said to increase strength and lessen fatigue. It can cure headaches and fevers too!

Great Blue Heron
1In 1 playlists
By OB3
The Great Blue Heron is a species that will be in any marsh, swamp, or shallow open coastline. The Heron is a blueish gray body, with a dark blue stripe down its head. They have very long legs that they use to wait until prey swims by. They then jab their spear-like beak into the water and eat the prey whole. They usually eat fish and small mammals

Signal Crayfish
1In 1 playlists
By OB3
The Signal Crayfish is the only crustacean in our local creek. Their habitats are anywhere with still-flowing water. Some examples are streams,creeks,lakes,and have been known to stand in salt water. These crustaceans are very invasive and if they reproduce can have a very large negative impact on any riparian ecosystem.

Riparian Zones Reducing the Risk or Erosion and Bank Failure
By OB15
There are many different ways a Riparian Zone affects streams. Among them, Riparian zones can reduce the risk of erosion. The root systems of trees and shrubs reinforces cohesion into the soil and by providing a protective surface matting. Also, trees use the water from the stream to increase the drainage in the soil, which reduces the risk of bank failure.

Why Chanterelles Don’t Grow Here
By OB5

Golden chanterelles are popular edible mushrooms. The main reason why they do not grow around Bowker Creek is because chanterelles like forested area, and moist undergrowth with lots of organic decaying matter. They also like to grow underneath salal. Bowker Creek doesn't meet these requirements.


Species #2: Hare’s Foot Inkcap (Coprinopsis Lagopus)
By OB5

These are hare’s foot inkcaps. They are common garden mushrooms that have delicate caps with edges that turn upward with age. They have hollow, frail stalks so they usually last no longer then a day or two. Their gills are very thin and spaced out, with inky black spores. They can be found growing in soil, wood chips, or leaf litter.

 

Species #1: Flat-topped Agaricus (Agaricus placomyces)
By OB5

These are flat-topped agaricus. They were growing in Monteith riparian ecosystem, underneath dogwood and blackberry, in a shaded, damp area. They have gills, which are free from the stalk and slightly pink. Their stalk is mostly white, with a thick base and a ring. Their cap is tan and has small, brown “scales” that radiate outward from the middle.

 

Chiton
1In 1 playlists
By OB9
Chitons are a type of Mollusc that are common around Victoria. Chitons are usually covered by a shell that consists of 8 plates. They move around using a muscle commonly referred to as the foot. There are many species of Chitons with sizes ranging from 1 centimeter to 30 centimeters. They are commonly found at beaches and in tide pools.

Brittle Star
1In 1 playlists
By OB9
 

    The Brittle star is a creature that is closely related to the sea star. They often eat plankton, small crustaceans, and worms. There are about 1500 species of Brittle star and they are around 500 million years old. Brittle stars are able to easily regenerate lost limbs, sometimes using this ability to escape predators.

 

Sculpin
1In 1 playlists
By OB9
The Sculpin is a small fish that belongs to the Cottidae Family. There are around 300 species, however the ones found on Victoria beaches are quite small. Some Sculpin can reach 25 pounds! They usually live to 7 years. They mostly eat small fish, crabs, and worms. Sculpin do not have scales, they have smooth skin covered with small rigid spines.

Umbrella Crab
1In 1 playlists
By OB9
The Umbrella Crab is a small crab with a unique shaped shell, Its carapace can be any color from gray, red, orange and purple. They usually grow to 5 to 10 centimeters. They are carnivores and mostly eat algae and small organisms. The Umbrella Crab is perhaps the rarest creature on this playlist, and very few people have found them in Victoria.

The First Question:Is plastic a problem?
By OB2
The obscene character limit for these segments means that I will be largely explaining myself in the actual text document, however, I can provide a recap here. So I will: Verdict: Plastic is harmful to some marine species, but only kills a small number of them each year, Not only that but they have not been proven to damage either humans or plants.

Mallard Duck
1In 1 playlists
By OB3
The Mallard Duck is always a constant visitor anywhere along a marsh or wetland or a ocean. Males have a dark green head and a yellow bill. Females are brown with blue feathers under their Wings. They eat the seeds of aquatic plants, seeds, stems, and insects when they are young. A great place to see them is at Beacon Hill Park or Bowker Creek.

Bowker Creek’s polluted waters
By OB11
Bowker Creek is currently under a 100 year restoration plan to return it to its former glory. And while this plan is well underway we still have a constant problem of pollutants. Such as illegal dumping, unfiltered storm water, and chemicals that roll in from off our roads. 

Red Rock Crab
1In 1 playlists
By OB9
The red rock crab is a species of crustacean that resides in the Pacific Ocean. It is commonly found at willows beach and most other beaches in Victoria. They are carnivores and mostly eat barnacles, smaller crabs, and dead fish. They can grow to be about 15 centimeters and must molt to grow.

People of the Salish Sea (Coast Salish Peoples)
By OB1
This video created by the Seattle Art Museum gives a great insight into the lives of 'People Of the Salish Sea' also know as the 'Coast Salish Peoples'. This group has a great connection to the ocean and the waterways that lead there, as water brings life to all!

Time Lapse of Bowker Creek Reconstruction
By OB1
In this time lapse video, the first major steps of Bowker Creek's Reconstruction are completed. At the end of the video, note the many native plants have been planted.

Douglas-fir
2In 2 playlists
By OB1
The Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) has needles that are a great source of Vitamin C as well as has sticky pitch that can be used as a salve for wounds. Young sprouts can be used as a infusion for treatments of colds and has resin that can be chewed to heal sore throats.

Bowker Creek Blueprint
2In 2 playlists
By OB1
This is a short video created by the Capital Regional District about the Bowker Creek Blueprint (a 100-year action plan to restore the Bowker Creek Watershed). In this video you will see how much the community came together to begin to restore Bowker Creek, a shared wonder in the Victoria area.

About the Coast Salish Peoples
By OB1
Who are the Coast Salish Peoples? In this article one will learn basic background information about the Coast Salish Peoples that will further ones understanding of how they use the Bowker Creek native plants for medicinal uses.

Species #3: Common Inkcap (Coprinopsis atramentaria)
By OB5

These are common inkcaps. They are found all throughout parts of Europe and North America. Their caps are a tan brown, their stalk is white, and they have tightly spaced gills with an abundance of inky black spores. Pretty much all inkcaps have gills that liquefy with age. They like to grow on old logs and stumps.


Indian Plum
2In 2 playlists
By OB6
 

Indian Plum is a BC native that is commonly found at the Monteith Street Gardens. It looks like a miniature plum, hence the name Indian Plum. First Nations uses include tuberculosis treatment, healing promotion, and food sourcing. Indian Plums are edible, but may contain hydrogen cyanide, so be careful not to overeat.


pH of Bowker Creek and Implications
By OB4
According too the CRD's scale for drinking water, this rating of 7.4ppm is acceptable and healthy for a freshwater creek such as Bowker.

Climate change… what is it?
By OB7
Climate change is a shift in the global climate pattern caused by more greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Increased carbon dioxide is caused from the burning of fossil fuels to create energy. Environmental issues are forming due to this change in atmospheric carbon dioxide.This issue needs immediate attention before it spirals out of our control.

On Site
1In 1 playlists
On July 30, 2018 the Crossing Cultures and Healing pole was brought on site to the Royal BC Museum. This is where Tom and Perry LaFortune will continue to carve the pole until it is completed in October. 

The Rope
1In 1 playlists
Intertwined among the different figures, Tom and Perry are carving in a rope. This represents the rope that the Saanich people used to tie themselves to a tree on the mountain during the great flood. It helped keep their people together and safe. It was also in this story that they began calling themselves "the emerging people".

The Raven
1In 1 playlists
The raven is the figure on top of the pole as they are the messenger of good news for the Tsawout and Saanich people. The raven received this title as it was a raven who brought the Saanich people the news that the great flood had ended. 

The Owl
1In 1 playlists
The owl, in the Tsawout culture, is an all-seeing being. They are able to see into the past, future, and present, that is why they can rotate their head. Tom and Perry chose to include the owl in this piece, as the theme of "Crossing Cultures and Healing" requires us to reflect on the past and present to instill change and healing for the future.

Shaping
1In 1 playlists
Once the pole has been prepped, Tom and Perry begin the initial shaping. This creates the general shape of the pole's figures and design. This is done using chainsaws.

The Woman
1In 1 playlists
Perry is shown measuring his sketch for the woman design. Perry explained the math that goes into their poles, as they measure their designs to scale.The woman is a symbol of the Tsawout Nation's matriarchal ways and represents Perry and Tom's mother. She is a symbol of strength and resilience for them as she attended residential school. 

The Frog
1In 1 playlists
While watching Tom and Perry sketch the frog design onto the pole, you were witnessing their strong connection and unique work ethic that comes from years of working together and their brotherly bond. They would pass the pencil back and forth, each adding in their own style with their individual talents. 

Sketching
1In 1 playlists
When doing the initial shaping on the pole,  Perry asked Tom to come and see an idea he had. He noticed there was an empty space in their design and Perry had the idea to add a frog, a symbol of the conscience to the Tsawout Nation. Tom agreed with Perry and they began sketching a frog design onto the pole. 

Chalking
1In 1 playlists
To make sure they are cutting in a straight and even line across the pole they use a chalk line. This helps them know if they need to adjust their grip or height. 

Rotating
1In 1 playlists
In order to saw around the whole circle they use a mechanical jack to lift and rotate the log.

Prepping
1In 1 playlists
In order for the pole to have the proper dimensions, Tom and Perry had to  measure a circle on both sides of the log and then use a saw to cut off the excess wood.

Aquatic animals in Bowker Creek: Crayfish
By OB34
Crayfish are small shrimp-like crustaceans that are usually 6-9 inches long. They have a segmented body, with variations or different sandy colours. Crayfishes ideal habitats are lakes, rivers, springs, or seasonally wet habitats such as roadside ditches. Sometimes they will live in dry areas. They spawn in late summer, or early fall or spring.

Aquatic animals in Bowker Creek: Leech
By OB34
Leeches have soft but muscular bodies with two suckers, one on each end. Colouring varies, but usually tends to be darker with blotches, stripes, or spots. Average size is around 50 mm long. They prefer to live in shallow streams, creeks, or lakes. Leeches reproduce individually, they can all produce eggs which they attach to a surface underwater. 

Desired species for the future: Chum Salmon
By OB34
The chum salmon live most of their lives in the ocean, but migrate to spawn from June to August. When in the ocean their colouring tends to be a silvery blue green with unclear spotting, when in fresh water their colour changes to a dark olive green and their belly colour darkens. Their ideal spawning habitats are rivers and streams, near springs.

Aquatic animals in bowker creek: Three spined stickleback
By OB34
The three spined stickleback is a small fish with three spines on its back. It has a greenish olive colour with a large black eye. Their preferred fresh water habitat are well vegetated sheltered bays, or quiet rivers with a sandy or muddy bottom. They eat small crustaceans, worms, insect larvae, and fish larvae and eggs even from their own species

Desired species for the future: Cutthroat trout
By OB34
Cutthroat trout vary widely in size from 6-40 inches long. They have a golden greyish green colour with pink markings. Cutthroat tend to live in smaller habitats. They require cold, clear, well oxygenated, shallow rivers with gravel bottoms or cold, deep lakes, and healthy stream-side vegetation. Coastal cutthroat are highly predatory. 

Qualities that make bowker creek suitable for aquatic life
By OB34
Water qualities temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, phosphate, and nitrate are acceptable to support aquatic life. Native plant species reintroduced, helps slow erosion into the creek. Native and non native plants create shade for organisms for protection from the sun. Some curves in the creek pathway have created places for organisms to live. 

A possible future for the watershed
By OB35
A possible outcome could be a very positive one with having lots of animals come back like cutthroat trout, frogs, more birds and the creek being in a very healthy condition. Which will be a great outcome

Will salmon ever swim again in Bowker creek
By OB35
Colquitz creek has salmon. Craigflower creek has salmon. Millstream creek also has salmon. What's different in bowker creek then these other creeks is that they are clean enough that salmon actually have resources to live off of.

What can we do to help our watersheds health?
By OB35
We need a healthy watershed to have healthy animals, with a healthy watershed we will obtain healthy animals so that requires good water quality. We need to make sure we have healthy keystone species that will stay for some time otherwise are ecosystem will always be changing.

Can we restore river otters to  bowker creek
By OB35
We can restore river otters back in a couple of ways i found this article online about a river otter restoration in New Mexico. It would take a lot of efffort and work with changing the waer quality and making sure that they have a wide variety of prey to feed on and a variety of aquatic plants for the otters to eat.

Restoration: Keeping the Run
By OB25
Once we have tackled the necessary conditions for salmon to live in Bowker Creek, keeping them here is the next challenge. To preserve the run, a great deal of education must go into the community, and the emphasis on not littering. There must also be occasional clean-ups, to block any dams that have formed and may block the path of the salmon.

Aquatic ecosystem quality
By OB34
Bowker Creek current water quality: Temperature: (average) 12 degrees celsius. Dissolved oxygen (average) 8.25 ppm. pH: (average) 6.5. Phosphate: (average) 0.25 mg/l. Nitrate: (average) 0.37 ppm

The Creek: Turbidity
1In 1 playlists
By OB25
Turbidity relates to the sediment in the ground - cloudiness, means more particles. These pieces can get trapped in the salmon's gills and suffocate them. In Bowker Creek, the issue is the soil on the side of the banks. Turbidity or haziness in the water can cause many hazards, like suffocating the fish and their inability to see clearly.

The Creek: Problem with Runoff
By OB25
Although our plan for Bowker Creek may seem ideal, there are flaws that we must address before beginning the project. One being, the issue with excess stormwater contributing to the creek's water volume, and because there is plenty road runoff emptying into Bowker, the dirty water affects the turbidity and the salmon cannot withstand the haziness. 

Maintaining
1In 1 playlists
By OB22
The best way to maintain the creek as we know it is more of what we are seeing now, which is having students and community help to eliminate invasive plants and harbor native ones.

The Creek: A Problematic Layout for Salmon Travel
By OB25
Adult coho need a clear route to their spawning to lay their eggs. Bowker creek is 60% underground and the network of tunnels through which the creek flows would limit if not block salmon access to estuaries, meaning Bowker Creek is currently unsuitable for supporting a salmon run. View the next slide for a visual.

Wrap Up
1In 1 playlists
By OB22
Maintaining the Bowker Creeka area won't and hasn't been easy, but it is possible and essential that it happens. We, as a school and a community need to take action and keep this creek as healthy as possible, and I'm sure we will. This creek is a prime example of how powerful of a force a good and motivated school can be. Thanks for watching.

Maintaining (3)
1In 1 playlists
By OB22
The final way to maintain the creek is to create a strong relationship between the school and the creek, because believe it or not, if the students have a connection with the creek, they will take good care of it and teach others to. 

Maintaining (2)
1In 1 playlists
By OB22
We can also maintain our creek's ecosystem by picking up garbage (or not throwing in there in the first place).

Motive(s)
1In 1 playlists
By OB22
In the 60's and 70's the philosophy was water management, (storm drains all lead to the creek to reduce flooding) and the philosophy now is to have something with ecological and educational value to the school and community.

Asset
1In 1 playlists
By OB22
The restored Bowker Creek area is an asset to Oak Bay High school, in that it includes a beautiful outdoor classroom and easily accessible ecosystem to study.

native plant role
1In 1 playlists
Native plants provides habitat, food and survival needs to humans, animals, and plants. They use less resources, and store bigger amounts of carbon therefore creating better air quality. Native aquatic plants protect aquatic wildlife, and come as a source of food. They also drive invasive species away.salal

native plant numbers
1In 1 playlists
There are 3000 species of native plants in BC. Compared to that, there are only 175 recorded invasive plants in the province. However, having a low number of species doesn't mean there are low numbers of plants. Invasive species have an overwhelming amount of each species, which is why there are so many of them.dandilion

The Creek: Water Quality
By OB25
Many Parts of Bowker Creek’s water quality are preferable to salmon, such as temperature, pH and dissolved oxygen. It’s nitrogen and phosphate levels should be lowered, but the problem comes with ammonia - a toxic substance bowker creek has too much of. Here is a document detailing the preferred water quality levels for coho salmon.

About Salmon: Digging Redd
By OB25
In order to lay her eggs (called roe), the female salmon uses her caudal fin to dig a shalow hole in the bottom gravel (a redd) to create a low-pressure zone where her eggs can incubate. The female covers the eggs by disturbing the gravel at the upstream edge of her redds. She may make seven redds for her ~5000 eggs. 

Credits
By OB25
For our full bibliogphy, please read the document below. 

Final Plan
1In 1 playlists
By OB25
Our final plan to restore Bowker Creek's salmon is based around restoration: restoring the watershed, changing the flow of the river, creating suitable gravel, providing salmon food, reducing levels of ammonia, daylighitng parts of the creek, and reducing turbidity. While a huge project, it would result in bringing salmon back to Bowker Creek.

Restoration: Looking to Spanish Banks
By OB25
In 2011, Spanish banks took on a project restoring its salmon run. The stream had become blocked, and parts were hidden underground. but after clearing the dams, daylighting parts, and restoring natural vegetation, the salmon returned. The story is similar to Bowker Creek - urban devlopement hurt the salmon run, but shows that it can be fixed.

About Salmon: Why Coho are the Ideal Species
By OB25
We have concluded that Coho salmon are the ideal species to inhabit a restored Bowker Creek. They were one of the only salmon species present in early Bowker Creek, a high water flow tolerance means that they would be adapted to Bowker's high flow. Coho salmon are endangered, so reestablishing this salmon run may also save the Coho salmon species. 

About Salmon: Which Salmon Species?
By OB25
Coho salmon is the salmon species that we have decided would be a perfect fit to restore the Bowker Creek salmon run. Coho salmon are native to the west coast and are one of the original species that was historically part of the salmon run through Bowker Creek. Here is an image of a Coho salmon and how to identify the native fish. 

Restoration: Connecting the community
By OB25
A main focus of the Bowker Creek Initiative is to connect the community, which will be greatly impacted by the salmon. Having such an important species nearby allows for learning oppertunities, and having a place where you can actually see these creatures creates an oppertunity for people to learn about how their actions impact living creatures.

Restoration: CRD project plan
By OB25
The CRD 100-year blueprint is an incredible asset into the return of salmon into Bowker Creek. Focusing mainly on watershed, the action plan for Bowker Creek is to restore it to the pristine conditions it once had. Putting emphasis on community connections, the Bowker Creek Intitative is working to create a salm-friendly habitat once again. 

The Creek:  Watershed
1In 1 playlists
By OB25
 The primary focus of the Bowker Creek Initiative is to improve the Creek’s watershed (divide of runoff into water bodies,) because the excess water from storm drains in Bowker Creek is compromising the creek’s habitat qualities in several ways.

aquatic plants
1In 1 playlists
Some examples of aquatic native plants are: pondweed, water shield, arrowhead, and water pepper. They can increase water clarity by helping stabilize sediments. They help the environment because the are resistant to invasions opportunistic exotic plants. 

aquatic plants and life
native aquatic plants are important food source for many animals (ducks, geese, etc). They are used as nests and den-building materials for many birds and mammals. Young fish and amphibians use native aquatic plants as protection. Native aquatic plants provide livable habitat for aquatic insects, snails, and crustaceans.

Year 2
1In 1 playlists
By OB22
The second year was the year of planting all of the native plants we see today. Said plants contribute to the ecosystem in many positive ways.

adaptation
1In 1 playlists
Native plants store carbon dioxide better than invasive species. They adapt better to the surrounding environment conditions. Native plants require less resources to survive (such as water and soil)  therefore making it beneficial to the environment. 

Conclusion
1In 1 playlists
By OB26
In Conclusion, as we have seen in many examples of successful stream restorations, more needs to be done to significantly change the ecosystem than just improving the water quality. With improvements in water quality and other aspects we could bring back coho and chum salmon as well as cutthroat salmon back to Bowker creek.

When can we see this all happening?
By OB26
It will take a few years, but it is completely possible to bring back species to the creek. Once there has been a complete clean-up of all water deposits in the creek, there can be further work for species. A controlled spot for spawning salmon would be a great challenge to be able to see salmon run through the creek again.

Other Factors
1In 1 playlists
By OB26
Besides water quality there is many other factors that influence the ecosystem in bowker creek. In bowker creek some factors that affect the ecosystem are how much of the creek moves through pipes, the faster flow rates at parts of the creek, and pollution density in parts of the creek.

What Animals may return
By OB26
With an improvement to water quality in Bowker creek many animals which used to live in Bowker Creek like coho salmon could come back to the creek. As well as cutthroat trout and chum salmon. In addition, more birds would continue to revisit the creek and it would then become a more diverse region of marine life

What you can do
1In 1 playlists
By OB26
It's always a great idea to have the community push for clean streams as it has a strong influence on the government. Some things you can do to help are: Picking up garbage (yes it is gross) and putting in proper disposal. No dumping of cigarettes or other garbage into stream. And no disposing of oil or oil byproducts

What Authorities should be doing
By OB26
There are a nearly endless lists of things to help the creeks clean up but a few of them are: Filtration of storm drain before it’s released to a water source. Stop illegal dumping and littering. And reduce sediment from streets into the creek especially from construction sites

Species of the Creek
1In 1 playlists
By OB26
The creek is also home to these unpleasant creatures. Known commonly as a Leech, this creature consumes the blood of its prey by latching onto it with its Anterior and Posterior sucker. Leech bites do not hurt and are actually used for medical purposes in some places. Uses like healing wounds and unblocking clogged blood veins

Species of the Creek
1In 1 playlists
By OB26
Bowker Creek is full of these little creatures called Platyhelminthes, better known as “Flatworms”, these creatures feed on Protozoa and Bacteria and are generally consumed by a variety of small species including Spotted Mandarin and Yellow Wrasse.

Species of the Creek
1In 1 playlists
By OB26
Bowker Creek is a slightly polluted stream, being home to a few select resistant species. One of which, is the Three-Spined Stickleback. The Three-Spined Stickleback has a higher tolerance to pollution than most smaller fish. This organism proves to be a food source for many of the creeks inhabitants

Year 1
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By OB22
Year number one was the year of planning, where students and staff alike came together to design the area based on what the school thought would be an asset.

The Creek: Water Quality and Sewage
By OB25
Bowker Creek has had issues with the sewage system in the past as it follows the sewer line (as seen in the diagram above). Spills have a huge impact on water quality; high levels of nitrogen, phospherous and ammonia are associated with waste. To restore salmon, the stream needs to have a barrier preventing this, as seen in the current CRD plan.

Misleading Tests of the Creeks Water
By OB26
We can tell a creeks polluted because of bio-indicators, and obvious signs of pollution. First bio-indicators are animals that help us determine how polluted water is because some animals can deal with more pollution than others. Judging by the species of aquatic life in the creek tells us its pollution levels

Bowker Creek’s Location
By OB26
Bowker creek is old creek in Oak Bay and some parts of Victoria from around UVIC and flows into the ocean at willows beach. It once meandered through forests, meadows, and grasslands. As well salmon used to spawn in the creek and it provided food for the First Nations people in the area

Bowker Info
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By OB26
Although now the creek is heavily controlled where about 70% of the creek is in pipes. In recent years, there have been efforts to restore and bring back a cleaner creek. The limits of the restoration are visible alongside Oak Bay Secondary School

Bowker Creeks Location
By OB26
Bowker creek is old creek in Oak Bay and some parts of Victoria from around UVIC and flows into the ocean at willows beach. It once meandered through forests, meadows, and grasslands. As well salmon used to spawn in the creek and it provided food for the First Nations people in the area.

The Creek: Restoring Creekside Vegetation
By OB25
Part of the 100-year plan is to restore native vegetation on much of the creek corridor. The aim is to recreate the original creekside with as little influence from native plant species as possible. This will help create a better envrionment for food sources. Here is a stetch that has been made of possible  creek bed conditions on Shelbourne Road. 

Vegetaion: Feeding Isopods
By OB25
 Restoring the vegetation on the creek bank would contribute to the creek’s marine biodiversity and provide more food supply to help support salmon populations. This is because the decaying plant matter that ends up in the creek could be consumed by the stream invertebrates which act as food for juvenile salmon (alevins.)

About the Salmon: Their Diet
By OB25
When in freshwater, coho salmon feed on plankton, insects, and larval invertabrates, but swtich to a diet of small fish upon entering the ocean. To regain these fish, Bowker Creek needs to have conditions to support populations of plankton, invertabrates and insects - such as stable water quality and ample food. Here are examples of such sources. 

What Are We Doing About It?
By OB27
Currently, a restoration process is taking place in Bowker Creek. The goal is to bring back the naturality of it, and hopefully bring back some species that once roamed those waters. Here is a video explaining the restoration!

Can Bowker Creek Sustain those Food Species?
By OB27
A majority of Bowker Creek is underground, this could alter the possibility of sustaining plankton or zooplankton in the creek as they use photosynthesis to create food and would need to live in open areas of the creek where sunlight is available. As for aquatic insects, Bowker Creek is riddled with them! Aquatic insects would not be an issue here!

What do the Salmon Eat?
By OB27
The Chum and Coho Salmon have a very similar diet. They both feed on aquatic insects and plankton, however, the Chum Salmon specifically feeds on zooplankton rather than Chum Salmon that eats all and any plankton available.

How Can We Get The Salmon Back?
By OB27
My peers have created a playlist going into further detail on how to get the salmon back! I highly recommend you check it out!

Chum Salmon Spawning
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By OB27
Here is a video of Chum Salmon spawning! A hopeful result we can achieve in Bowker Creek!

Chum Necessity Comparison
By OB27
Above is a chart comparing the tolerance and necessary amount of different molecular substances found in the creek. This table is able to tell us that the water quality of Bowker Creek is not yet able to sustain Chum Salmon. 

Creek Habitat Requirements (Detailed)
By OB27
This is a small paper I wrote explaining what requirements a creek or freshwater stream must meet to create a sustainable habitat. I also further explain what all the requirements are and how they help the creek and it's inhabitants! 

Why Did The Salmon Leave?
By OB27
Over the years we have altered the Salmon's natural habitat. It is no longer a natural creek. We have manipulated every twist and turn of the creek and now it is not a natural or sustainable environment for Salmon. In south Oak Bay, we have essentially created a big drainage ditch with the giant cement wall lining the creek.

The Creek: Sediment Composition Spawning Requirements
By OB25
 Bowker Creek’s gravel doesn't meet salmon spawning requirements (read pdf) The surface has large stones that would be difficult to move and an underlayer that is fine and densely packed. To make the gravel bottom suitable for roe, about 8 cm of new gravel would need to be added to the creek’s floor to meet coho spawning criteria.

About Salmon: Digging Redd ( videoclip)
By OB25
 The first five seconds of this clip shows a female salmon using her caudal tail to dig her redd. You can watch on to for an enhanced understanding of the salmon-incubation/maturing.

Action Plan: Daylighting and the 100-year Creek Vision
By OB25
The 100-year vision for Bowker Creek’s layout shows an almost completely daylighted creek going as far as Mackenzie Road and would be suitable for supporting the travel of salmon from the ocean, The creek’s design will also benefit the water quality and turbidity, making it the first crucial step to making Bowker Creek a salmon-friendly habitat.

The Creek: Map of Bowker Creek’s Current Condition
By OB25
This is a diagram of Bowker Creek’s current state. The blue lines represent the distance of the creek that is above ground and the dotted lines indicate underground waterways including the underground passage of the creek and the storm

About Salmon: Understanding the Salmon Cycle:
By OB25
This is a diagram of a salmon's life cycle. Salmon are anadromous meaning they hatch in fresh water, migrate to the ocean, then return to the freshwater to reproduce. The creek would act as a habitat for spawning and unmatured salmon, meaning that Bowker Creek would have to meet several criteria in order to be habitable for salmon alevin and fry.

our topic
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what exactly are we talking about? our driving question is "How do native plants effect the ecosystem?" Why are they so important to not only us but to many animals too? why do we depend on them so heavily, and what benefits do they give to the whole ecosystem as a whole?

bond of native and invasive
Symbiotic Relationship between Native and Invasive Plantsinvasive plants affect the health and population of native plants and benefit the environment by keeping native plant's numbers in control by feeding off of native plants. (creeping buttercup: ranunculus repens)

Coho Salmon Necessity Comparison
By OB27
Above you will see the tolerance levels of the Coho Salmon compared to Bowker Creek's levels.  The levels above are the maximum amount of levels that a Coho Salmon can tolerate.

The Idea
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By OB22
The idea to restore Bowker Creek began to bloom several years ago.

Coho Salmon Egg Hatching
By OB27
If and when the Coho Salmon return, we hope that the millions eggs they lay will not be harmed so the Salmon community can thrive once more in Bowker Creek.

Bowker Creek’s Current Statistics
By OB27
The categories in the photo are the essential conditions and molecular substances needed in a thriving aquatic environment. To the right of them are the levels and amounts of these substances Bowker Creek has. (ppm = parts per million)

The Shape of Water
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By OB23
The creekbed took a lot of design, research and thought. These curves benefit smaller creatures, by providing small areas for them to find shelter from the current. This supports more life in the stream. When the water rises, it flows in a predetermined way, purposefully designed for better flow and to reduce plant uprooting. 

Salmon Types
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By OB27
There were two main types of Salmon that inhabited Bowker Creek; The Chum Salmon and the Coho Salmon. Above you will see a photo I created showing you the two different types of Salmon, male and female.

Why do We Want Salmon at Bowker Creek?
By OB24
If salmon were to return to Bowker Creek, they would not only help the creek to reach a climax community, they would increase Bower Creek's connection to the community. Having salmon would make more people interested in helping with the restoration and learning about Victoria's ecosystems.

Possible Solutions for Water Quality Issues
By OB24
Nitrates get into Bowker Creek through garden and road runoff containing plant fertilizers. As there are few nitrate free fertilizers, a way to reduce the nitrate levels in the creek would be to control the amount of fertilizers used near the creek. If this problem were to be fixed, there could be enough dissolved oxygen for salmon. 

Obstacles in Bowker Creek
By OB24
Could the salmon get through the tunnels at Bowker Creek? Most of the tunnels would be easy for the salmon to swim through; the only problem would be the sloped tunnel under Fireman's Park. The angle of the tunnel would prevent salmon from swimming up it. For salmon to swim through the creek, a small fish ladder must be put in this tunnel.

Planning Vegetation
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By OB23
The planning of Bowker creek's plants was very thorough, as it needed to be a) aesthetically pleasing, b) Help filter toxins out of the water and c) discourage invasive plant growth.

Oak Bay High’s contribution and the Outdoor Classroom
By OB23
One of the conditions of Bowker being renovated was that Oak Bay High school would need to take some responsibility in the maintenance and use of the surrounding area. This led to the creation of the outdoor classroom, which is essentially an amphitheater. Its main use is for quick meetings centered around ecological topics.  

native plant 6
 Native plants help use less pesticides. It is said that over 70 million pounds of pesticides are applied to lawns in a year. These chemicals run off into rivers and lakes, causing a big problem with clean water and aquatic life. 

native plant 5
 many people chose to plant native plants when starting a garden because of the benefits they provide. Native plants develop their own defensive systems, driving away pests, diseases as well as invasive plants. This is why people choose to plant native. 

native plant 4
 Native plants, as well as being low maintenance, can provide many benefits to the ecosystem. It creates vital habitat for important wildlife. Plants like the ocean spray (grown in victoria) gives us beautiful scenery which we value and protect. 

Humanity’s key to success
 Humans, depend on plants for regular things we take for granted everyday. Clothes, building materials, paper, perfumes, cleaning supplies, and medicines. Without the native plants to provide us these products, human economy and life would not be as we know it today. 

native plants 1
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 What if society did not have the habitat that the native plants provide for our wildlife? The animals depending on these plants for food and habitat would struggle to survive. This would knock the food chain out of place, resulting in decreasing populations of the native plant depending animals. 

Water Quality Issues
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By OB24
There is too much nitrate and not enough dissolved oxygen for salmon. The abundance of nitrate contributes to the lack of D.O. One of the reasons for all the nitrate is probably fertilizers from road runoff and gardens, which is full of nitrate. If the nitrate levels could be decreased, the D.O. would increase, and maybe be able to support salmon.

Bird Wing Types
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By OB21
Birds play a huge role in the Bowker Creek ecosystem. From ducks and crows to hawks and owls, birds are prey, predators, and scavengers. But there's one thing all birds have in common - their wings. So what are some of the adaptations found in bird wings?

Salmon’s Role in Bowker Creek
By OB24
The addition of salmon would have a large impact on the ecosystem. Although adult salmon don't eat while breeding, the babies would eat insects, plankton, and invertebrates. Animals like raccoons, herons, hawks, and eagles would eat the dead adult salmon. The salmon would create a more stable and diverse community in the creek.

Adaptations of the Barred Owl
By OB21
Barred Owls are malevolent predators and majestic fliers, thriving in many different environments. Bowker Creek hosts a family of three Barred Owls; a mated pair their offspring. These birds of prey flourish in the Bowker Creek ecosystem, providing enough food for themselves and their family. So what allows them to prosper?

Mallard Ducks
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By OB21
Mallard Ducks are very abundant in Bowker Creek. They are well adapted to life there, using their webbed feet to swim through (and sometimes under) the water. Females and chicks have brown-black camouflage in order to blend in with their surroundings. The mallard's bill is flattened out and well suited for filter feeding in creeks and lakes.

Fish Ladders
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By OB24
For salmon to be able to swim through the tunnel under Fireman's Park, a fish ladder would have to be installed. The fish ladder that would be put in Bowker Creek would not be as complicated as the one in the video below, as this is just a short tunnel, not a dam. 

The Salmon Cycle
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By OB24
Salmon return to their birthplace to breed. The breeding pairs lay their eggs and die soon afterwards. Once the young salmon are old enough, they swim out to sea. After a few years they return to their first home and repeat the cycle. Here is a diagram of the salmon life cycle.

Bowker Basics
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By OB27
Bowker creek runs from south Oak Bay, to Uptown, Saanich, and back. Bowker Creek is approximately 2500 years old and originally home to lots of Salmon, but sadly not anymore. Above you will see a map. The thinner blue line is Bowker Creek, the thick blue line is its Watershed boundaries.

History of Bowker
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By OB24
Before Bowker was subject to urbanization, it supported Chum and Coho salmon. The salmon were a very important part of First Nations' culture, not only for food, but also for roles in their stories. It's a shame that most of the history of the creek has been lost and isn't known  anymore. The salmon could bring back the connection to the past.

Barred Owls
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By OB21
Barred Owls are well adapted to hunting in the trees. Their large wingspan cushioned by softened feathers allows for easy flight with little noise. Barred owls also possess the unusual ability of walking (or hopping) by coordinating the movements of their wings and feet. Exceptional sight and hearing helps the owls find their prey easily at night.

Great Horned Owls
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By OB21
Great Horned owls are native to BC and its forests. They're nocturnal predators, using serrated wing edges and softened feathers to silently ambush their prey. Their raised ears can rotate to pin down the exact location of their quarry. Though only weighing 3 pounds, their powerful legs and sharp talons let them grab prey that weights up to 10lbs!

Red-Tailed Hawks
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By OB21
Found in the Kings-Haultain Rd section of Bowker Creek, Red-Tailed hawks are expert hunters. They have amazing vision, allowing them to see prey from far away. They're extremely lightweight; the largest birds (females with a wingspan of 133cm) only weigh 3 pounds! Their large size gives them the strength to take down bigger prey than other raptors.

Black Medic
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By OB21
Black Medic is a very invasive plant. It's a winter annual plant - it grows through spring, distributing its seeds in late summer. The original plant then dies, and the seeds germinate during the winter. The Black Medic's roots host nodules of N-fixing bacteria, allowing the plant to feed directly on Nitrogen, ensuring constant food and growth.

Rusty Crayfish
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By OB21
Rusty Crayfish are an invasive species that can be found in the creeks, ponds, and rivers of BC. These crayfish spawn prolifically, and can destroy much of their habitat's vegetation during breeding season. Their eggs are carried under the female's tail, keeping them safe; a feature which has allowed their species to spread rapidly.

The Amazing Adaptations of Sticklebacks
By OB21
Three-spined sticklebacks are an amazing species with the ability to interbreed at an almost alarming rate. They produce an astounding amount of sub-species, all with slightly different physical traits to pass on to the next generation. So how do they do it?

Three-Spined Sticklebacks
By OB21
Three-Spined Sticklebacks possess the ability to evolve remarkably quickly. Their species is a master at adaptive radiation, producing over ten new variations in less than 20,000 years - a mere blink of an eye in the ordinary evolution timeline. These fish frequently interbreed, producing stable and healthy offspring, ready to foster new species.

Sword Ferns
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By OB21
Sword ferns have multiple adaptations to help them survive in their natural habitat. Instead of having trunks, sword ferns have rhizomes - flexible branch-like appendages that hold their fronds. These ferns also have spores, which are housed on the underside of each frond. These spores can travel for miles in the wind and are released in billions.

Bigleaf Maples
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By OB21
The big leaf maple is the tallest maple in Canada, specially adapted to life in the forest. It’s narrow crown is supported by a large, branchless stem, ensuring it stays upright during the Canadian winter. It’s seeds are distributed in pairs, each with twin wings that carry them, twisting and turning, down from the canopy and into new territory.

Blackberries
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By OB21
Blackberries are so specialized to invasion, they’ve developed two different ways to spread. The first is by seeds, which are distributed through their fruit. These seeds are eaten by animals, and then return to their environment after being excreted. The second is through runners, which grow at the end of one year and produce a new plant the next.

English Ivy
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By OB21
English ivy is specially adapted to spread throughout their environment. Their roots release a substance that sticks to the surface the ivy wishes to climb, and small suction-like discs grow from the main stem to keep the ivy secure. English ivy’s roots spread sideways instead of up and down, gathering nutrients on the move.

Thistles
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By OB21
Native thistles like the blessed milk thistle have evolved spines on their leaves and flowers to discourage animals from feeding on them. These plants also produce over 6000 seeds annually, with each flower growing more almost 200! The plants can tolerate high winds and cold temperatures, and are well suited to life in Victoria.

The Beginning
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By OB22
Bowker Creek has always been a great resource for students and citizens to learn and observe, but it hasn't always looked this good.

Water Quality Chart
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By OB24
This is a chart that compares the water quality of Bowker Creek to the water quality necessary for salmon. As your can see in the chart, there is too much nitrate in the water and not enough dissolved oxygen necessary for salmon.

Interactive Bathroom Cabinet
Why were medicine bottles often textured? Camilla Cyr used a simple box to simulate the experience of underlit houses. Blue glass was also often used to communicate ‘danger’. A real lifesaver if you couldn’t read or see what you were taking!

Identifying Basketry
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Tessa Gaudet skillfully helped visitors identify characteristics of Coast Salish and northern (likely Haida) basketry, along with oral history and archival photos, to recognize cultural diversity in this region and the ways in which the Songhees village served as a hub for exchange and resistance in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

Follow the Bottle
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Callum Richards and Scott Steele built interactive maps connection the global exchange networks of early Victoria, based on artifacts excavated locally but made all over the world, from Australia to Germany, and everywhere in between. Scott’s map based on the journey of one bottle can still be found here: https://goo.gl/XSWj6W

Halibut Hook Exhibit
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Martina Samson used a combination of art and hands-on tools/materials to discuss halibut fishing and the importance of halibut in northwest coast cultures.Visitors tested their skills in identifying fish species local to this region, in addition to learning how a halibut hook from the RBCM collection was made and used.

The Map Exhibit
The students made it interactive using a kit called “Makey Makey,” which is a circuit board that connects to your computer, and coding it through a program called “Scratch”. By touching the conductive tape (copper strips) on the board, you complete a circuit to play short audio soundscapes and introductions to the site! See the map in action here!

A Closer Look at the Map
The map was also made three-dimensional and interactive through 3D printing. This boat and bottle caps, for instance, represent some of the more recent history in Esquimalt Harbour. The prints were made using open access models on Thingiverse and printed through the UVic Digital Scholarship Commons makerspace.

Interactive Map
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Maddy Chater, Tamara Friedman, Kayla Hartemink, Anna Heckadon, Kaylynne Sparks, and Yip van Muijlwijk created this is interactive map that occupied visitors of all ages in visiting three archaeological sites of Victoria: the Songhees Village, the DND Harbour Dredging, and the Johnson Street Bridge.

Shadow Box Interaction
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Emily Thiessen created a captivating light box that animated the story of a small rice bowl and it’s +100 year life journey from China to becoming artifact DcRu-1208-340 in the RBCM’s collection. Visitors loved peaking into the box tucked into a corner of Old Town and flipping through the pages of this beautifully illustrated story.

Chinatown Exhibit
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Andrea Lacey’s display connects soy sauce containers recovered from the edge of Victoria’s Chinatown, the oldest Chinatown in Canada, to their place of origin in Guangdong Province. These simple glazed ceramic jugs were often reused after their contents were fully consumed to make and store spirits, etc. as resources were scarce in this period.

Dredging Exhibit
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The ongoing DND dredging of the Esquimalt Harbour is turning up archaeological collections. Devon Bidal, Jenny Ho Ng, and Marj Parent engage visitors in thinking about the types of objects that are being collected, from cordage made of natural fibers to military objects, representing hundreds of years of human use of the harbour.

Food Memories Interaction
Hallie Rounthwaite developed an interactive activity to connect visitors’ modern experiences of food with a Coast Salish wooden spoon excavated from the old Songhees village. Visitors were invited to add their food memories to paper spoons and then categorize them (either cooking/eating or producing/harvesting).

Interactive Posters: Aurasma
Alexa Dagan, Luisa Esteban and Elisa O’Malley developed cutting-edge augmented reality experiences (using Aurasma app) to demonstrate how these three landscapes have changed over time, using archival and contemporary photos. Augmented reality layers the physical world with digital media to add information and interactivity.

Timeline of the Esquimalt Harbour
This picture-based timeline gives a brief history of the Esquimalt Harbour and its use over time. Swipe your way through time and follow the links to learn more about local history!

Restoration
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By OB24
It will take a lot of effort from the groups helping with the Bowker Creek restoration, such as the Greater Victoria Green Team, the CRD and Oak Bay High, to clean up the pollution to make Bowker suitable for salmon again. Hopefully, when Bowker Creek has been sufficiently restored, we will be able to reintroduce salmon to this urban ecosystem.

Pollution at Bowker Creek
By OB24
In Bowker Creek, there are many species that act as bioindicators, such as leeches, sticklebacks and aquatic worms. Bioindicators are organisms used to gauge the health of an ecosystem. The organisms found in the creek all have a high pollution tolerance, meaning the creek is polluted. If we want salmon to return, the pollution must be reduced.

Spirits at Sea
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60% of glass artifacts were alcoholic. The issue of daily spirits was one of the customs the RCN took from the British Royal Navy and it had changed over time. Junior sailors had to mix their rum with cola. Some will switch it for coke and pour the rum into a bottle for later. Later on, the serving of spirits at sea was replaced by beer and wine.

Japanese Tea Garden in Esquimalt
Hayato Takata and Yoshitaro Kishida opened the garden on July 11, 1907. Two Takata brothers started to run the garden as a family business in 1922. The Takata family was interned in 1942. Their houses and the garden were vandalized and destroyed. The rest of their belongings were sold off by the government. [BC Archives-E-01902] Learn more about this image at BC Archives here.

Halford Wilson’s Scrapbook
A scrapbook donated by Alderman Halford Wilson contains newspaper clippings, advertisements, and annotations made by the author that show his racism towards Japanese Canadians. This documents illuminates the racist climate of the 1940s in which the dispossession of Japanese Canadians occurred. [BC Archives-ms0012, box 3]

Miners at the Awaya Ikeda Mine, Haida Gwaii
The owner of the Ikeda Mine, Arichika Ikeda, died in 1939 but the ownership of his mine came under the jurisdiction of the Custodian in 1942. His wife, Kaoru Ikeda, interned in Slocan, was made to release her rights to the property as well as their family house. She died after four years of internment in the spring of 1946. [BC Archives H-04580] Learn more about this image at BC Archives here.

Chum Salmon
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By OB24
The salmon in Bowker would probably be Chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta), the most common species of salmon on the island. They have a 3-4 year lifespan and spawn in freshwater streams.  Chum are the most sensitive species of salmon, which will make it difficult for them to return to Bowker Creek, but aren't discriminating as to where they spawn.

Johnson Street Bridge Site
Downtown Victoria’s blue bridge was built in 1924 and since its construction has been the main access between downtown Victoria and Esquimalt. When the site was excavated in 2016, the artifacts uncovered suggest an area of cultural overlap between the First Nations, European, and Chinese populations and evidence of significant international trade.

Old Songhees Village Archaeology
Before it was Shutters Spa development, this site was the Old Songhees Village, established in 1844 when the Songhees people were asked to relocate from the Inner Harbour. When construction began the discovery of a bone awl thought to date pre-1846, the limit of protection granted to BC archaeology, allowed the excavation of over 5,000 artifacts.

Esquimalt Dredging Project
Before Esquimalt Harbour was a naval port, it was a food resource for the ancestors of the Songhees and Esquimalt Nation peoples. The bay was used by First Nations for its marine life, but settlers were interested in the potential of the deep sea harbour. During the dredging to remove industrial contamination, artifacts were found from both groups.

Technology as Old as Fire?
The practice of twisting fiber strands together to make cordage is, arguably, one of the most ancient of technologies. Before machines, human hands turned cordage into items ranging from simple bow strings to elaborate fishing nets. For people living on B.C. coasts, who depended on the ocean for food, cordage would have been essential for survival.

Antler Wedge in Use
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Illustration from the Royal BC Museum archaeology gallery of  antler wedges and a stone hand maul being used for woodworking. 

Paddle
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This paddle is from the Royal BC Museum Ethnology collection. View the object in the collection here

Cowichan Spindle Whorl
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This image is from the BC Archives. Learn more about the image here: <http://search-bcarchives.royalbcmuseum.bc.ca/spinning-wool-for-cowichan-indian-sweaters>

Ladder in Pit House
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This image is from the BC Archives. Learn more about the image here: <http://search-bcarchives.royalbcmuseum.bc.ca/kickwilli-hules-1907-inside-of-pit-house> .

Pole Raising
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This image is from BC Archives. Learn more about the image here: <http://search-bcarchives.royalbcmuseum.bc.ca/raising-totem-pole-at-masset>

Northern Presence in Victoria
Victoria has always been a melting pot of cultures! After Victoria was established, many First Nations came from up and down the coast to work and trade. Luckily for archaeologists and historians, their presence can be seen in the archaeological record. Unearthed northern basketry indicates First Nations from up north had once lived in Victoria.

“A Bike Ride by the Sea” by Katherine Gillis (audio)
"The background sound of the ocean is really a distorted version of the trickling water from the university's waterfall, and the end of the sound clip has a bicycle clip played in reverse to represent the movement of going back in time, to a time when the style of bicycle that the soundscape is based off of would have existed."

“Dinner Party” by Caitlin Wynne (audio)
"I chose the china tea set because I have always loved china tea sets.
When I see these tea sets it always makes me think of extravagant dinner
parties with live music. Through this soundscape I tried to represent a
dinner party with the soundscape ending with the string quartet ready
to start the music."

“Floating” by Katie McPherson (audio)
"The inspiration for this soundscape came from an old boating float made from blown glass wrapped with rope. In the soundscape I choose to bring out the sounds of water, rope tying it together with a methodic bass line to create a distorted track that invokes a mellow interpretation of what it could be like floating along the water."

“Water is Life” by Ben Ghafari (audio)
"Throughout this project, I attempted to capture the relevance of water in our daily lives. While listening to this production, one should appreciate the fragility of water in all its majesty. This soundscape provides the listener with a figurative breath of fresh air swept from the surface of salty tides."

“Vancouver’s Globe” by Nathan Daigle (audio)
"The year is 1794. . . The soundscape begins outside of the docked Discovery. The weather is gloomy and Sea Lions are heard near by. A crew member enters the quarters, sits down, and spins the globe several times. A haunting melody creeps into the soundscape, representative of things to come."

“Journey” by Matthew Kennell and Danny Thon (audio)
"This soundscape is meant to evoke feelings of nostalgia and curiosity for people in modern society as many, if not all of us, will never experience an ocean crossing in a boat such as this one. we also wanted to add some muffled voices and other sounds that might not be as familiar to listeners that could still be present in this context."

Dr. Hostetter’s Stomach Bitter’s: For Those Sick of Sobriety
Dr. Hostetter’s Stomach Bitter’s was put into large scale production in 1853 by David Hostetter, the son of the recipe’s creator, and continued produced for over 100 years. This 94-proof alcohol was marketed to the Union soldiers during the American Civil War as “a positive protective against the fatal maladies of the Southern swamps”.

Putting Pen to Paper: The Story of an Inkwell
While this may make the inkwell seem like an ordinary object, when put in historical and cultural context through written records, this inkwell as part of a larger story. This inkwell was a tool for Chinese Canadians to maintain communication with their homelands, retain cultural connection and defend their rights as members of Canadian society.

Smoke-Break With a Sailor
This audio-guide is based on the true life-story of David Michael Corry Connor – voiced by Samuel DeCosse – who was born in Liverpool in 1927 and served in the British Navy during World War Two. The creator, Devon Bidal, used a material culture approach to build the story around a lighter found at the Esquimalt Harbour site. 

The Historic Songhees Village Site
The Songhees village site was occupied between 1844 and 1911. In accordance with B.C. law, artifacts are only protected if they date pre-1846. An archaeological assessment of the site was prompted when a single artifact older than 1846 was uncovered. This site is unique because most of its contents date post-1846!

Esquimalt Harbour Soundscape
The Esquimalt Harbour Soundscape takes you on a trip through time. Climb aboard the canoe and listen to the sounds of fishing as the ravens call from the trees. Then follow with us through the ages as canoes are replaced by tall-ships and tall-ships replaced by steam and then diesel.

Songhees Village Soundscape
The Songhees Village Soundscape takes you through the grass to a carving tent. There you can hear the carvers working and children playing in the distance. From the carving tent follow us out to the beach, listen to the seagulls and eagles as you walk along the smooth stones down to the water's edge.